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Biomineralizing organisms use organic molecules to generate species-specific mineral patterns. Here, we describe the chemical structure of long-chain polyamines (up to 20 repeated units), which represent the main organic constituent of diatom biosilica. These substances are the longest polyamine chains found in nature and induce rapid silica precipitation(More)
The outstanding feature of a diatom is the species-specific design and ornamentation of the silica-based cell wall, termed frustulum. A new frustulum is shaped in a specialized organelle (silica deposition vesicle) and secreted. Proteins in the lumen of this organelle may control the biomineralization process and are likely to remain associated with the(More)
Diatoms possess silica-based cell walls with species-specific structures and ornamentations. Silica deposition in diatoms offers a model to study the processes involved in biomineralization. A new wall is produced in a specialized vesicle (silica deposition vesicle, SDV) and secreted. Thus proteins involved in wall biogenesis may remain associated with the(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) lyase has recently been implicated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), based on studies in a genetic mouse model. Potent active site directed inhibitors of the enzyme are not known so far. Here we describe the discovery of (4-benzylphthalazin-1-yl)-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl]nicotinonitrile 5 in a(More)
In this article, we demonstrate that interaction of human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV-VLPs) with the putative glucosaminoglycan binding receptor is strictly dependent on conformational integrity. Such conformations are present on VLPs and capsomeres but not on monomers of the major capsid protein, L1, confirming reports that capsomeres can induce(More)
Human papillomavirus virus-like particles (VLPs) have recently been used to deliver genes into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated whether VLPs may serve as an efficient carrier of low molecular weight compounds (e.g. hormones, vitamins, peptides etc.) into cells. COS7 cells were incubated with recombinant HPV-16L1/L2 VLPs labelled(More)
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