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In trees, production of intercellular signals and accessibility of signal conduits jointly govern dormancy cycling at the shoot apex. We identified 10 putative cell wall 1,3-β-glucanase genes (glucan hydrolase family 17 [GH17]) in Populus that could turn over 1,3-β-glucan (callose) at pores and plasmodesmata (PD) and investigated their regulation in(More)
We investigated the short day (SD)-induced transition to dormancy in wild-type hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) and its absence in transgenic poplar overexpressing heterologous PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA). CENTRORADIALIS-LIKE1 (CENL1), a poplar ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1), was markedly downregulated in the wild-type(More)
To survive winter deciduous perennials of the temperate zones cease growth and acquire a cold-acclimated state. Timing of these events is guided by sensory systems in the leaves that register critical alterations in photoperiod. Growth cessation on its own is not sufficient to develop adequate freezing tolerance, which requires entry of the shoot apical(More)
We investigated changes in gene expression in Iris hollandica flowers by microarray technology. Flag tepals were sampled daily, from three days prior to flower opening to the onset of visible senescence symptoms. Gene expression profiles were compared with biochemical data including lipid and protein degradation and DNA coiling, and with morphological data.(More)
Plant lipid droplets are found in seeds and in post-embryonic tissues. Lipid droplets in seeds have been intensively studied, but those in post-embryonic tissues are less well characterised. Although known by a variety of names, here we will refer to all of them as lipid bodies (LBs). LBs are unique spherical organelles which bud off from the endoplasmic(More)
Shoot apical meristems of deciduous woody perennials share gross structural features with other angiosperms, but are unique in the seasonal regulation of vegetative and floral meristems. Supporting longevity, flowering is postponed to the adult phase, and restricted to some axillary meristems. In cold climates, photoperiodic timing mechanisms and chilling(More)
Lipid bodies (LBs) are universal constituents of both animal and plant cells. They are produced by specialized membrane domains at the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and consist of a core of neutral lipids and a surrounding monolayer of phospholipid with embedded amphipathic proteins. Although originally regarded as simple depots for lipids, they have(More)
Tree architecture develops over time through the collective activity of apical and axillary meristems. Although the capacity of both meristems to form buds is crucial for perennial life, a comparative analysis is lacking. As shown here for hybrid aspen, axillary meristems engage in an elaborate process of axillary bud (AXB) formation, while apical dominance(More)
The tiny vascular axis of the embryo emerges post-embryonically as an elaborate and critical infrastructure, pervading the entire plant system. Its expansive nature is especially impressive in trees, where growth and development continue for extended periods. While the shoot apical meristem (SAM) orchestrates primary morphogenesis, the vascular system is(More)
Axillary buds (AXBs) of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides) contain a developing dwarfed shoot that becomes para-dormant at the bud maturation point. Para-dormant AXBs can grow out after stem decapitation, while dormant AXBs pre-require long-term chilling to release them from dormancy. The latter is mediated by gibberellin (GA)-regulated(More)