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BACKGROUND The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer was initiated in the early 1990s to evaluate the effect of screening with prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) testing on death rates from prostate cancer. METHODS We identified 182,000 men between the ages of 50 and 74 years through registries in seven European countries for inclusion(More)
BACKGROUND Several trials evaluating the effect of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on prostate-cancer mortality have shown conflicting results. We updated prostate-cancer mortality in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer with 2 additional years of follow-up. METHODS The study involved 182,160 men between the ages of 50(More)
BACKGROUND Focal therapy has been introduced for the treatment of localised prostate cancer (PCa). To provide the necessary data for consistent assessment, all focal therapy trials should be performed according to uniform, systematic pre- and post-treatment evaluation with well-defined end points and strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. OBJECTIVE To(More)
BACKGROUND The complications of prostate needle biopsy (PNB) are important when considering the benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening. Studies from the United States and Canada have recently reported increasing numbers of hospitalizations for infectious complications after PNB. OBJECTIVE Examine the risk of infectious complications and hospital(More)
OBJECTIVE This is the first of two review papers attempting to clarify the best way to detect prostate cancer (PCa) in 2007. Screening for PCa has not yet been shown to lower PCa mortality. Still, opportunistic screening is wide spread in Europe and in most other parts of the world. METHODS Current literature and data from screening studies are reviewed(More)
BACKGROUND Overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are important side effects of screening for, and early detection of, prostate cancer (PCa). Active surveillance (AS) is of growing interest as an alternative to radical treatment of low-risk PCa. OBJECTIVE To update our experience in the largest worldwide prospective AS cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
PURPOSE Prostate specific antigen and free prostate specific antigen have limited specificity to detect clinically significant, curable prostate cancer, leading to unnecessary biopsy, and detection and treatment of some indolent tumors. Specificity to detect clinically significant prostate cancer may be improved by [-2]pro-prostate specific antigen. We(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of small, localised, well-differentiated prostate cancer (PCa) is increasing, mainly as a result of screening. Many of these cancers will not progress, and radical therapy may lead to substantial overtreatment. Active surveillance (AS) has emerged as an alternative. OBJECTIVE To retrospectively validate the currently used criteria(More)
BACKGROUND The Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study was initiated a decade ago to study the most optimal selection and follow-up of men on active surveillance (AS). OBJECTIVE We report on 10 yr of follow-up of men on AS in the PRIAS study and evaluate if criteria used to recommend a switch to active treatment truly(More)
BACKGROUND Novel markers for prostate cancer (PCa) detection are needed. Total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA=tPSA/fPSA) lack diagnostic specificity. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoforms p2PSA and benign prostatic hyperplasia-associated PSA (BPHA). DESIGN, SETTING,(More)