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Our understanding of a precise dose-response relationship for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy in the treatment of seizures is still evolving. Because several parameters are involved in VNS therapy, the individual contribution of each is not well understood. This review discusses the efficacy of stimulation parameters used in the VNS clinical trials.(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the safety and efficacy of external trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNS) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) using a double-blind randomized controlled trial design, and to test the suitability of treatment and control parameters in preparation for a phase III multicenter clinical trial. METHODS This is a double-blind(More)
Remind, which stands for "restorative encoding memory integration neural device," is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)-sponsored program to construct the first-ever cognitive prosthesis to replace lost memory function and enhance the existing memory capacity in animals and, ultimately, in humans. Reaching this goal involves understanding(More)
BACKGROUND External trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNS) is an emerging noninvasive therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). We report the long-term safety and efficacy of eTNS after completion of a phase II randomized controlled clinical trial for drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS This was a prospective open-label long-term study. Subjects who completed(More)
Nonhuman primate and human studies have suggested that populations of neurons in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) may represent high-level aspects of action planning that can be used to control external devices as part of a brain-machine interface. However, there is no direct neuron-recording evidence that human PPC is involved in action planning, and(More)
Epilepsy is a medical syndrome that produces seizures affecting a variety of mental and physical functions. The actual mechanisms of the onset and termination of the seizure are still unclear. While medical therapies can suppress the symptoms of seizures, 30% of patients do not respond well. Temporal lobectomy is a common surgical treatment for medically(More)
UNLABELLED Humans shape their hands to grasp, manipulate objects, and to communicate. From nonhuman primate studies, we know that visual and motor properties for grasps can be derived from cells in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Are non-grasp-related hand shapes in humans represented similarly? Here we show for the first time how single neurons in the(More)
New interventions using neuromodulatory devices such as vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation and responsive neurostimulation are available or under study for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Since the actual mechanisms of the onset and termination of the seizure are still unclear, most researchers or clinicians determine the optimal(More)
Inter-ictal activity is studied in hippocampal slices resected from patients with epilepsy using local field potential recording. Inter-ictal activity in the dentate gyrus (DG) is induced by high-potassium (8 mM), low-magnesium (0.25 mM) aCSF with additional 100 μM 4-aminopyridine(4-AP). The dynamics of the inter-ictal activity is investigated by developing(More)