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T he increase in resistance of human pathogens to antimicrobial agents is one of the best-documented examples of evolution in action at the present time, and because it has direct life-and-death consequences, it provides the strongest rationale for teaching evolutionary biology as a rigorous science in high school biology curricula, universities, and(More)
Sexual reproduction brings together and recombines different genomes. Associated with these contacts is transmission of microorganisms and selfish genetic elements, many of which can be harmful to the host. In organisms with internal fertilization, sexually transmitted infections are caused by pathogens transmitted between the parents participating in(More)
We have demonstrated decreased microvascular sensitivity to norepinephrine during endotoxin shock possibly related to reduced sympathetic receptor activity (Baker et al.: Circ Shock 12:165-176, 1984). The response to other vascular controls such as arginine vasopressin (AVP) may also be altered. Reactivity of the left cremaster muscle microvessels of(More)
Previous studies of physiological and ultrastructural assessment changes in the walls of the femoral artery and A1, A2, and A3 arterioles in the rat cremaster muscle after infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (ENDT) (6 mg/kg-1 hr. period) indicate there may be a difference in the alteration of the endothelial structure of arteries and arterioles.(More)
The microvascular and macrovascular effects of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) were examined in rat cremaster muscle A1, A2, and A3 arterioles by videomicroscopy to better define its protective effects during endotoxemia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), arteriolar diameters, and responses to norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) were examined hourly(More)
It is well documented that adrenergic responses after endotoxin (ENDT) administration are greatly reduced. The hypothesis of this study is that either alpha 1- or alpha 2-receptor activity is attenuated and the other receptor type is minimally affected during ENDT shock. Reactivity of the arterioles of left cremaster muscles of male Wistar rats anesthetized(More)
O UR STUDIES on the seeming loss of plasma from the circulation after transfusion and the mobilization of plasma often seen after hemorrhage or drug infusions have been handicapped by a large variation in measured responses between animals. Conversations with other workers on blood volume regulation have indicated that such variability is not uncommon. The(More)
The microvascular circuits traversed by red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma from first-order arterioles to first-order venules are complicated by variations in hemodynamic, rheologic, and dimensional parameters. Escherichia coli endotoxin causes microcirculatory derangements expected to alter RBC and plasma transport through these circuits. Wistar male rats(More)