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To prevent the loss of raw material in ethanol production by anaerobic yeast cultures, glycerol formation has to be reduced. In theory, this may be done by providing the yeast with amino acids, since the de novo cell synthesis of amino acids from glucose and ammonia gives rise to a surplus of NADH, which has to be reoxidized by the formation of glycerol. An(More)
14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of eukaryotic proteins that are key regulators of a large number of processes ranging from mitosis to apoptosis. 14-3-3s function as dimers and bind to particular motifs in their target proteins. To date, 14-3-3s have been implicated in regulation or stabilization of more than 35 different proteins. This number is(More)
The composition of cultivation media in relation to strain development for industrial application is reviewed. Heterologous protein production and pentose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used to illustrate the influence of media composition at different stages of strain construction and strain development. The effects of complex, defined and(More)
Lignocellulose hydrolysate is an abundant substrate for bioethanol production. The ideal microorganism for such a fermentation process should combine rapid and efficient conversion of the available carbon sources to ethanol with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components in the hydrolysate. A particular biological problem are the pentoses, which(More)
In order to identify integral proteins and peripheral proteins associated with the plasma membrane, highly purified Arabidopsis plasma membranes from green tissue (leaves and petioles) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, which yields plasma membrane vesicles with a cytoplasmic-side-in(More)
The 14-3-3 proteins, once thought of as obscure mammalian brain proteins, are fast becoming recognized as major regulators of plant primary metabolism and of other cellular processes. Their presence as large gene families in plants underscores their essential role in plant physiology. We have examined the Arabidopsis thaliana 14-3-3 gene family, which(More)
The control of glycolytic flux in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by using permeabilized cells. Cells were harvested from chemostat cultures and, after removal of the cell wall, nystatin was used to permeabilize the spheroplasts. By this method it is possible to study the performance and regulation of a complete and functional metabolic(More)
The importance of the physiological state of a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for tolerance to sudden osmotic dehydration was studied, and it was investigated whether specific osmotolerance factors were demonstrable. The microcalorimeter was used to monitor growth, and different physiological states of the culture were selected and their osmotolerance(More)
BACKGROUND Cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires efficient mixed sugar utilization. Notably, the rate and yield of xylose and arabinose co-fermentation to ethanol must be enhanced. RESULTS Evolutionary engineering was used to improve the simultaneous conversion of xylose and arabinose to(More)
The intracellular solute composition of the salt-tolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was studied in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at different concentrations of NaCl (4 mM, 0.68 M, and 1.35 M). A strong positive correlation between the total intracellular polyol concentration (glycerol and arabinitol) and medium salinity was demonstrated. The(More)