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OBJECTIVES Dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS) are easy to collect and store, and have been successfully tested as an alternative to plasma for performing virological analyses. Adequate storage conditions still need to be established and cell-associated proviral DNA in DBS can contribute to the amplified products. We evaluated these two(More)
INTRODUCTION Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF) and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally(More)
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) from west central Africa are recognized as the reservoir of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpzPtt) that have crossed at least twice to humans: this resulted in the AIDS pandemic (from human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 group M) in one instance and infection of just a few individuals in Cameroon (by HIV-1 group(More)
Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in(More)
BACKGROUND CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G) were obtained from a well-described(More)
PCRs were performed with primers from the internal regions of bla CTX-M gene and primers for insertion sequences ISEcp1 and IS903 (4,5). Positive PCR products were obtained with primers ISEcp1F and CTX2 (943 bp); no amplified product was produced with primers CTX1 and IS903R. Sequencing of a 943-bp amplicon showed that bla CTX-M15 was flanked upstream by an(More)
BACKGROUND Increased access to HIV testing is essential in working towards universal access to HIV prevention and treatment in resource-limited countries. We here evaluated currently used HIV diagnostic tests and algorithms in Cameroon for their ability to correctly identify HIV infections. METHODS We estimated sensitivity, specificity, and positive and(More)
INTRODUCTION As antiretroviral treatment (ART) continues to expand in resource-limited countries, the emergence of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRMs) is challenging in these settings. In Gabon (central Africa), no study has yet reported the virological effectiveness of initial ART given through routine HIV care. METHODS Following the World Health(More)
BACKGROUND Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces. METHODS We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from(More)
Human retroviral infections such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) are the result of simian zoonotic transmissions through handling and butchering of Non-Human Primates (NHP) or by close contact with pet animals. Recent studies on retroviral infections in NHP bushmeat allowed for the identification of numerous(More)