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Increased global use of highly productive breeds of farm animals has been coupled to loss of genetic diversity in most species. In European countries, various governmental, non-governmental, and private organizations try to preserve genetic diversity of livestock in situ (e.g., by stimulating the use of indigenous, rare breeds by farmers; in nature(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyze a sample of pharmaceutical waste drawn from household garbage in Vienna, with the aim to learn whether and which medicines end up unused in normal household waste. METHODS We obtained a pharmaceutical waste sample from the Vienna Municipal Waste Department. This was drawn by their staff in a representative search in October and(More)
Supercooling causes very abrupt temperature and osmotic changes and can thus lead to freezing damage. Supercooling can be prevented by seeding, using a sample volume and geometry that allows rapid spreading of the ice throughout the sample. In a split-sample comparison of such samples on the cooling stage of a cryomicroscope and seeded at -5 and -15 degrees(More)
Four groups of cows, each group comprising from 5,000 to 5,500 animals, were inseminated with 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 millions of living and dead spermatozoa respectively. This was deep frozen semen in 0.25 ml straws. The fertilisation rates of the groups did not differ significantly, even when the fertility levels of the twenty-eight bulls involved were taken(More)
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