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Environmental enrichment (EE) is used in laboratory animal housing to provide stimuli exceeding those of barren cages and is intended to improve the welfare of captive animals. It is argued that when laboratory mice can routinely retreat in sheltering objects when humans are present, they do not habituate to humans and continue to shy away, thereby(More)
Pig vocalisations convey information about their current state of health and welfare. Continuously monitoring these vocalisations can provide useful information for the farmer. For instance, pig screams can indicate stressful situations. When monitoring screams, other sounds can interfere with scream detection. Therefore, identifying screams from other(More)
Many sources of variation in animal experiments are related to characteristics of the animal or its husbandry conditions. In ethologic studies, observational methods can also affect interexperimental variation. Different descriptions for a behavior can lead to divergent findings that may be incorrectly attributed to other factors if not recognized as(More)
For dairy cattle on pasture in temperate regions, it is largely unknown to what degree hot summer conditions impact energy metabolism, milk yield and milk composition and how effective shade is in reducing these negative effects. During the summer of 2012, a herd of Holstein cows was kept on pasture without access to shade (treatment NS). During the summers(More)
We address housing, refinements of husbandry, and some concerns regarding the use of parrots as laboratory animals. Because the duration of a project is most likely brief relative to the lifespan of the bird, among the most important goals is a well-established socialization program to maximize success of rehoming the birds after laboratory housing. We also(More)
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