Christabelle J. Darcy

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Severe falciparum malaria (SM) is associated with tissue ischemia related to cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes to microvascular endothelium and reduced levels of NO and its precursor, l-arginine. Endothelial function has not been characterized in SM but can be improved by l-arginine in cardiovascular disease. In an observational study in Indonesia,(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, are raised in patients with chronic vascular disease, causing increased cardiovascular risk and endothelial dysfunction, but the role of ADMA in acute inflammatory states is less well defined. METHODS AND RESULTS In a prospective(More)
There is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in critical illness. This has highlighted the need for an accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for detection of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in small volumes of blood. Here, the(More)
Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is a predictor of mortality in critical illness. Severe malaria (SM) is associated with decreased NO bioavailability, but the contribution of ADMA to the pathogenesis of impaired NO bioavailability and adverse outcomes in malaria is unknown. In adults with and(More)
INTRODUCTION Sepsis has a high mortality despite advances in management. Microcirculatory and endothelial dysfunction contribute to organ failure, and better tools are needed to assess microcirculatory responses to adjunctive therapies. We hypothesised that peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), a novel user-independent measure of endothelium-dependent(More)
Both endothelial and immune dysfunction contribute to the high mortality rate in human sepsis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In response to infection, interferon-γ activates indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) which metabolizes the essential amino acid tryptophan to the toxic metabolite kynurenine. IDO can be expressed in endothelial cells,(More)
BACKGROUND Severe malaria is characterized by microvascular obstruction, endothelial dysfunction, and reduced levels of L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO). L-Arginine infusion improves endothelial function in moderately severe malaria. Neither the longitudinal course of endothelial dysfunction nor factors associated with recovery have been characterized in(More)
INTRODUCTION Impaired T cell function in sepsis is associated with poor outcome, but the mechanisms are unclear. In cancer, arginase-expressing myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) deplete arginine, impair T cell receptor CD3 zeta-chain expression and T cell function and are linked to poor clinical outcome, but their role during acute human infectious(More)
BACKGROUND Determination of the plasma concentrations of arginine and other amino acids is important for understanding pathophysiology, immunopathology and nutritional supplementation in human disease. Delays in processing of blood samples cause a change in amino acid concentrations, but this has not been precisely quantified. We aimed to describe the(More)
BACKGROUND The pathophysiology of sepsis is incompletely understood. Impaired bioavailability of L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthesis, is linked to sepsis severity, and plasma arginase has been linked to hypoargininemia in other disease states. Circulating neutrophils are increased in sepsis and constitutively express arginase. We investigated whether(More)