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The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in the regulation of food intake. Here we show that the lack of CB1 in mice with a disrupted CB1 gene causes hypophagia and leanness. As compared with WT (CB1+/+) littermates, mice lacking CB1 (CB1-/-) exhibited reduced spontaneous caloric intake and, as a(More)
The cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in the heart, but their role under pathological conditions remains controversial. This study examined the effect of CB1 receptor blockade on cardiovascular functions after experimental MI and in experimental metabolic syndrome. MI was induced in Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary(More)
Batterham et al. report that the gut peptide hormone PYY3-36 decreases food intake and body-weight gain in rodents, a discovery that has been heralded as potentially offering a new therapy for obesity. However, we have been unable to replicate their results. Although the reasons for this discrepancy remain undetermined, an effective anti-obesity drug(More)
Stroke is one of the major medical burdens in industrialized countries. Animal experiments indicate that blockade of the angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1R) improves neurological outcome after cerebral ischemia. These protective effects are partially mediated by the angiotensin AT2 receptor (AT2R). The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger(More)
OBJECTIVE Pre-treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers is known to improve neurological outcome after stroke. This study investigated for the first time, whether the renin inhibitor aliskiren has similar neuroprotective effects. METHODS Since aliskiren specifically blocks human renin, double transgenic rats expressing human renin and angiotensinogen(More)
Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have become well established drugs for the treatment of major risk factors of stroke. Since several studies provided evidence that ARBs and TZDs also have additional anti-inflammatory effects, we hypothesized that a combined treatment with the ARB, candesartan, and the TZD, pioglitazone,(More)
OBJECTIVES Stroke, frequently a consequence of hypertension, is one of the leading causes of death and neurological disabilities worldwide. In the ischemic brain, levels of endothelin-1, one of the most potent vasoconstrictors, are raised. Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of endothelin antagonists after stroke have been described in literature.(More)
It is widely accepted that the angiotensin AT2-receptor (AT2R) has neuroprotective features. In the present study we tested pharmacological AT2R-stimulation as a therapeutic approach in a model of spinal cord compression injury (SCI) in mice using the novel non-peptide AT2R-agonist, Compound 21 (C21). Complementary experiments in primary neurons and(More)
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by interstitial fibrosis and formation of renal cysts. Interestingly, interstitial fibrosis and renal cyst formation were also seen in human endothelin-1 (ET-1) transgenic mice. This study, therefore, analyzes the tissue distribution of ET-1, the tissue concentrations of ET-1, as well as the expression of ET(More)
BACKGROUND Abundance of commensals constituting the intestinal microbiota (IM) affects the immune system and predisposes to a variety of diseases, including intestinal infections, cancer, inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Housing conditions determine the IM and can hence influence the immune system. We analyzed how both variables affect the IM of four(More)