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Glucocorticoids (GC) have important anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic activities. Initially thought to be exclusively produced by the adrenal glands, there is now increasing evidence for extra-adrenal sources of GCs. We have previously shown that the intestinal epithelium produces immunoregulatory GCs and that intestinal steroidogenesis is regulated by(More)
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) supplies electrons from NADPH to steroid and drug metabolizing reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s located in endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in human POR cause a wide spectrum of disease ranging from disordered steroidogenesis to sexual differentiation. Previously we and others have shown that POR mutations can(More)
We identified a new point mutation in the CYP19 gene responsible for aromatase (P450arom) deficiency in a 46,XY male infant with unremarkable clinical findings at birth. This boy is homozygote for a 1-bp (C) deletion in exon 5 of the aromatase gene causing a frame-shift mutation. The frame-shift results in a prematurely terminated protein that is inactive(More)
Suboptimal dietary zinc (Zn(2+)) intake is increasingly appreciated as an important public health issue. Zn(2+) is an essential mineral, and infants are particularly vulnerable to Zn(2+) deficiency, as they require large amounts of Zn(2+) for their normal growth and development. Although term infants are born with an important hepatic Zn(2+) storage,(More)
The human GH gene is 1.7 kilobase pairs (kb) in length and is composed of five exons and four introns. This gene is expressed in the pituitary gland and encodes a 22 kDa protein. In addition to this predominant (75%) form, 5-10% of pituitary GH is present as a 20 kDa protein that has an amino acid (aa) sequence identical to the 22 kDa form except for a 15(More)
Human steroid biosynthesis depends on a specifically regulated cascade of enzymes including 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD3Bs). Type 2 HSD3B catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone to progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione in the human adrenal cortex and the gonads but the exact(More)
Regulation of human androgen biosynthesis is poorly understood. However, detailed knowledge is needed to eventually solve disorders with androgen dysbalance. We showed that starvation growth conditions shift steroidogenesis of human adrenal NCI-H295R cells towards androgen production attributable to decreased HSD3B2 expression and activity and increased(More)
Following development of the fetal bipotential gonad into a testis, male genital differentiation requires testicular androgens. Fetal Leydig cells produce testosterone that is converted to dihydrotestosterone in genital skin, resulting in labio-scrotal fusion. An alternative 'backdoor' pathway of dihydrotestosterone synthesis that bypasses testosterone has(More)
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during(More)