Chris de Graaf

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G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and their peptidergic ligands are interesting therapeutic targets due to their involvement in various immune-related diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV-1 infection and cancer. To tackle these diseases, a lot of effort has(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The histamine H₄ receptor, originally thought to signal merely through Gαi proteins, has recently been shown to also recruit and signal via β-arrestin2. Following the discovery that the reference antagonist indolecarboxamide JNJ 7777120 appears to be a partial agonist in β-arrestin2 recruitment, we have identified additional biased(More)
Generic residue numbers facilitate comparisons of, for example, mutational effects, ligand interactions, and structural motifs. The numbering scheme by Ballesteros and Weinstein for residues within the class A GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors) has more than 1100 citations, and the recent crystal structures for classes B, C, and F now call for a community(More)
A series of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-alkylamphetamines (MDAAs) were automatically docked and subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in a cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) protein model. The predicted substrate binding orientations, sites of oxidation, and relative reactivities were compared to the experimental data of wild-type and Phe120Ala mutant CYP2D6.(More)
This review will focus on the construction, refinement, and validation of G Protein-coupled receptor models for the purpose of structure-based virtual screening. Practical tips and tricks derived from concrete modeling and virtual screening exercises to overcome the problems and pitfalls associated with the different steps of the receptor modeling workflow(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Chemogenomics focuses on the discovery of new connections between chemical and biological space leading to the discovery of new protein targets and biologically active molecules. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a particularly interesting protein family for chemogenomics studies because there is an overwhelming amount of ligand(More)
Protein kinases regulate the majority of signal transduction pathways in cells and have become important targets for the development of designer drugs. We present a systematic analysis of kinase-ligand interactions in all regions of the catalytic cleft of all 1252 human kinase-ligand cocrystal structures present in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The(More)
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is one of the most important drug metabolizing enzymes and the rationalization and prediction of potential CYP2D6 substrates is therefore advantageous in the discovery and development of new drugs. Experimentally, the active site of CYP2D6 can be probed by site directed mutagenesis studies. Such studies can be designed from(More)
This review will focus on the construction, refinement, and validation of chemokine receptor models for the purpose of structure-based virtual screening and ligand design. The review will present a comparative analysis of ligand binding pockets in chemokine receptors, including a review of the recently released CXCR4 X-ray structures, and their implication(More)