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Ion channels are extraordinarily efficient machines that move ions in diversely controlled manners, allowing cells to rapidly exchange information with the outside world and with other cells. Communication is the currency of fertilization, as it is of most fundamental cell signaling events. Ion channels are deeply involved in the dialogue between sperm, its(More)
This project has employed a computerized pursuit meter which has a high correlation with operational performance (2) to test the principal antimotion sickness drugs. Proficiency scores on the pursuit meter task were improved over placebo scores in subjects with d-amphetamine 10 mg and 5 mg, the combination of promethazine 25 mg plus scopolamine 0.4 mg with(More)
Generating new life in animals by sexual reproduction depends on adequate communication between mature and competent male and female gametes. Ion channels are instrumental in the dialogue between sperm, its environment, and the egg. The ability of sperm to swim to the egg and fertilize it is modulated by ion permeability changes induced by environmental(More)
The vestibular, cerebellar, and reticular systems are central in importance, in motion sickness and habituation, to the effects of motion. Nuclear medicine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of cerebral blood flow and power spectral electroencephalographic recordings during motion sickness were used to determine alterations in the(More)
The effect of antimotion sickness drugs on habituation was studied. Subjects were rotated once a day for 5 d to the malaise III end-point after receiving placebo, 1 mg scopolamine, 10 mg d-amphetamine, or the combination of 0.6 mg scopolamine with 5 mg of d-amphetamine. The placebo scores had a Spearman coefficient of correlation of 0.88 with the initial(More)
Sea urchin sperm motility is modulated by sperm-activating peptides. One such peptide, speract, induces changes in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). High resolution imaging of single sperm reveals that speract-induced changes in [Ca2+]i have a complex spatiotemporal structure. [Ca2+]i increases arise in the tail as periodic oscillations;(More)
Today, due to exciting developments in advanced computing techniques and technologies, many scientists can now make use of dedicated high speed networks and high performance computing. This so-called 'e-Science' is enabling scientists across many fields to work together in global virtual research communities. What do these advancements mean for modeling and(More)
Scopolamine (1.0 mg) and d-amphetamine (10 mg) were administered alone and in combination to 16 subjects (medical students), randomly assigned to testing sessions in a fully crossed-over (Latin square) within-subjects design. After being practiced to stability, 9 performance tests from a menu of portable microcomputer-based tests were administered(More)
In ascidians, as in mammals, sperm trigger repetitive Ca2+-waves that originate from cortical pacemakers situated in the vegetal hemisphere of the zygotes. In ascidians, a vegetal protrusion termed the contraction pole (CP) acts as the Ca2+-wave pacemaker, but the mechanism that underlies the generation of a Ca2+-wave pacemaker is not known. Here, we tested(More)