Chris Winder

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A number of studies reported that the MTS in vitro cytotoxicity assay is a convenient method for assessing cell viability. The main features found with this assay are its ease of use, accuracy and rapid indication of toxicity. It might well be a useful tool in human health risk assessment if it can be shown that this assay also has an acceptable sensitivity(More)
The benefits of using occupational health and safety management systems (OHS MS) have been typically restricted to large scale, multi-site organisations, often from the manufacturing sector. Transferring these benefits to smaller businesses has been fraught with difficulty, with the mechanics and bureaucracy of the system itself sometimes becoming(More)
Jet oils are specialized synthetic oils used in high-performance jet engines. They have an appreciable hazard due to toxic ingredients, but are safe in use provided that maintenance personnel follow appropriate safety precautions and the oil stays in the engine. Aircraft engines that leak oil may expose others to the oils through uncontrolled exposure.(More)
Exposure to vapours of volatile chemicals is a major occupational and environmental health concern. Toxicity testing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has always faced significant technological problems due to their high volatility and/or low solubility. The aim of this study was to develop a practical and reproducible in vitro exposure technique for(More)
Chlorine is a reactive gas used by humanity for over two centuries. Exposure to chlorine has occurred in a number of situations, including as a chemical warfare agent, in industrial and domestic exposures, and as a result of accidents and spills. The toxicology of chlorine is related almost entirely to effects in the respiratory system. A consistent(More)
The aim of this study was to establish a dynamic in vitro model for direct exposure of human cells to gaseous contaminants to investigate the cellular responses to airborne chemical exposures. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was selected as a model gas compound. Standard test atmospheres were generated (2.5-10 ppm), using a dynamic direct dilution method. Human(More)
The pathological changes found in the central nervous system of lead-exposed humans and laboratory animals are reviewed. Data in man relate to relatively high exposure levels. In human childhood lead encephalopathy, which occurs with blood lead levels in the range 100-800 micrograms Pb/100 ml, oedema, vacuolation, haemorrhage and reactive glial changes(More)