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One of the most effective techniques to reduce a processor’s power consumption is to reduce supply voltage. However, reducing voltage in the context of manufacturing-induced parameter variations cancause many types of memory circuits to fail. As a result, voltage scaling is limited by a minimum voltage, often called Vccmin, beyond which circuits may(More)
Voltage scaling is one of the most effective mechanisms to reduce microprocessor power consumption. However, the increased severity of manufacturing-induced parameter variations at lower voltages limits voltage scaling to a minimum voltage, Vccmin, below which a processor cannot operate reliably. Memory cell failures in large memory structures (e.g.,(More)
Technology advancements have enabled the integration of large on-die embedded DRAM (eDRAM) caches. eDRAM is significantly denser than traditional SRAMs, but must be periodically refreshed to retain data. Like SRAM, eDRAM is susceptible to device variations, which play a role in determining refresh time for eDRAM cells. Refresh power potentially represents a(More)
Today's high performance processors tolerate long la-tency operations by means of out-of-order execution. However , as latencies increase, the size of the instruction window must increase even faster if we are to continue to tolerate these latencies. We have already reached the point where the size of an instruction window that can handle these latencies is(More)
High-performance processors execute instructions out of program order to tolerate long latencies and extract instruction-level parallelism. However, these processors retire instructions in program order to support precise exceptions. 1 If the execution of a long-latency instruction is not complete , the processor cannot retire that instruction and the(More)
Voltage scaling is one of the most effective mechanisms to improve microprocessors' energy efficiency. However, processors cannot operate reliably below a minimum voltage, Vccmin, since hardware structures may fail. Cell failures in large memory arrays (e.g., caches) typically determine Vccmin for the whole processor. We observe that most cache lines(More)
In chip multiprocessors (CMPs), limiting the number of offchip cache misses is crucial for good performance. Many multithreaded programs provide opportunities for <i>constructive</i> cache sharing, in which concurrently scheduled threads share a largely overlapping working set. In this paper, we compare the performance of two state-of-the-art schedulers(More)
Memory isolation is a key property of a reliable and secure computing system--an access to one memory address should not have unintended side effects on data stored in other addresses. However, as DRAM process technology scales down to smaller dimensions, it becomes more difficult to prevent DRAM cells from electrically interacting with each other. In this(More)