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Primary nociceptors are the first neurons involved in the complex processing system that regulates normal and pathological pain. Because of constraints on pharmacological and electrical stimulation, noninvasive excitation and inhibition of these neurons in freely moving nontransgenic animals has not been possible. Here we use an optogenetic strategy to(More)
Optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) would enable novel studies of motor control, somatosensory transduction, and pain processing. Such control requires the development of methods to deliver opsins and light to targeted sub-populations of neurons within peripheral nerves. We report here methods to deliver opsins and light to targeted(More)
INTRODUCTION There is no therapeutic approach that provides precise and rapidly reversible inhibition of motor nerve and muscle activity for treatment of spastic hypertonia. METHODS We used optogenetics to demonstrate precise and rapidly reversible light-mediated inhibition of motor nerve and muscle activity in vivo in transgenic Thy1::eNpHR2.0 mice. (More)
The science of voice evaluation and assessment has profited from technological advancement and objective measurement of voice parameters has become an integral part of the voice examination, however, subjective voice evaluation remains a vital component of any voice examination. The Towne-Heuer Reading Passage was developed in 1970 to provide a reading(More)
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