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We introduce the Padé–Z 2 (PZ) stochastic estimator for calculating determinants and determinant ratios. The estimator is applied to the calculation of fermion determinants from the two ends of the Hybrid Monte Carlo trajectories with pseudofermions. Our results on the 8 3 × 12 lattice with Wilson action show that the statistical errors from the stochastic(More)
For a general quantum theory that is describable by a path integral formalism, we construct a mathematical model of an accumulation-to-threshold process whose outcomes give predictions that are nearly identical to the given quantum theory. The model is neither local nor causal in spacetime, but is both local and causal is in a non-observable path space. The(More)
Nigeria's 2009-2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake(More)
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