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Considerable effort has been spent documenting correlations between dioecy and various ecological and morphological traits for the purpose of testing hypotheses about conditions that favor dioecy. The data analyzed in these studies, with few exceptions, come from local floras, within which it was possible to contrast the subsets of dioecious and(More)
There is considerable interest in understanding the biological mechanisms that regulate carbon exchanges between the land and atmosphere, and how these exchanges respond to climate change. An understanding of soil microbial ecology is central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle-climate feedbacks, but the complexity of the soil microbial(More)
Tropical peatlands contain one of the largest pools of terrestrial organic carbon, amounting to about 89,000 teragrams (1 Tg is a billion kilograms). Approximately 65 per cent of this carbon store is in Indonesia, where extensive anthropogenic degradation in the form of deforestation, drainage and fire are converting it into a globally significant source of(More)
Novel stroke rehabilitation techniques that employ electrical stimulation (ES) and robotic technologies are effective in reducing upper limb impairments. ES is most effective when it is applied to support the patients’ voluntary effort; however, current systems fail to fully exploit this connection. This study builds on previous work using advanced ES(More)
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) during repetitive practice of everyday tasks can facilitate recovery of upper limb function following stroke. Reduction in impairment is strongly associated with how closely FES assists performance, with advanced iterative learning control (ILC) technology providing precise upper-limb assistance. The aim of this study(More)
Peatlands represent a vast store of global carbon. Observations of rapidly rising dissolved organic carbon concentrations in rivers draining peatlands have created concerns that those stores are beginning to destabilize. Three main factors have been put forward as potential causal mechanisms, but it appears that two alternatives--warming and increased river(More)
BACKGROUND An inability to perform tasks involving reaching is a common problem following stroke. Evidence supports the use of robotic therapy and functional electrical stimulation (FES) to reduce upper limb impairments, but current systems may not encourage maximal voluntary contribution from the participant because assistance is not responsive to(More)