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Synopsis For a successful analysis of the relation between amino acid sequence and protein structure, an unambiguous and physically meaningful definition of secondary structure is essential. We have developed a set of simple and physically motivated criteria for secondary structure, programmed as a pattern-recognition process of hydrogen-bonded and(More)
With a rapidly growing pool of known tertiary structures, the importance of protein structure comparison parallels that of sequence alignment. We have developed a novel algorithm (DALI) for optimal pairwise alignment of protein structures. The three-dimensional co-ordinates of each protein are used to calculate residue-residue (C alpha-C alpha) distance(More)
We have trained a two-layered feed-forward neural network on a non-redundant data base of 130 protein chains to predict the secondary structure of water-soluble proteins. A new key aspect is the use of evolutionary information in the form of multiple sequence alignments that are used as input in place of single sequences. The inclusion of protein family(More)
The database of known protein three-dimensional structures can be significantly increased by the use of sequence homology, based on the following observations. (1) The database of known sequences, currently at more than 12,000 proteins, is two orders of magnitude larger than the database of known structures. (2) The currently most powerful method of(More)
Cytoscape is a free software package for visualizing, modeling and analyzing molecular and genetic interaction networks. This protocol explains how to use Cytoscape to analyze the results of mRNA expression profiling, and other functional genomics and proteomics experiments, in the context of an interaction network obtained for genes of interest. Five major(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with target mRNAs at specific sites to induce cleavage of the message or inhibit translation. The specific function of most mammalian miRNAs is unknown. We have predicted target sites on the 3' untranslated regions of human gene transcripts for all currently known 218 mammalian miRNAs to facilitate focused experiments. We report(More)
A genetic interaction network containing approximately 1000 genes and approximately 4000 interactions was mapped by crossing mutations in 132 different query genes into a set of approximately 4700 viable gene yeast deletion mutants and scoring the double mutant progeny for fitness defects. Network connectivity was predictive of function because interactions(More)
Using evolutionary information contained in multiple sequence alignments as input to neural networks, secondary structure can be predicted at significantly increased accuracy. Here, we extend our previous three-level system of neural networks by using additional input information derived from multiple alignments. Using a position-specific conservation(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. In order to identify miRNAs and to assess their expression patterns, we sequenced over 250 small RNA libraries from 26 different organ systems and cell types of human and rodents that were enriched in(More)
Secondary structure prediction recently has surpassed the 70% level of average accuracy, evaluated on the single residue states helix, strand and loop (Q3). But the ultimate goal is reliable prediction of tertiary (three-dimensional, 3D) structure, not 100% single residue accuracy for secondary structure. A comparison of pairs of structurally homologous(More)