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Disruptions in the use of skeletal muscle lead to muscle atrophy. After short periods of disuse, muscle atrophy is reversible, and even after prolonged periods of inactivity, myofiber degeneration is uncommon. The pathways that regulate atrophy, initiated either by peripheral nerve damage, immobilization, aging, catabolic steroids, or cancer cachexia,(More)
Agrin activates MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in skeletal muscle, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) beta-subunit and clustering of AChRs. The importance of AChR beta-subunit tyrosine phosphorylation in clustering AChRs and regulating synaptic differentiation is poorly understood. We generated mice with(More)
Gene expression in skeletal muscle is regulated by a family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. The binding of these bHLH proteins, notably MyoD and myogenin, to E-boxes in their own regulatory regions is blocked by protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of a single threonine residue in their basic region. Because electrical(More)
Skeletal muscle within the vertebrate limb originates from the somite. Much work has focussed upon the role of secreted signalling molecules of the Hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and Wnt families plus their associated antagonists in establishing somitic cell types, yet there is no consensus on how these signals(More)
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