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BACKGROUND Although numerous studies have shown that the status of the sentinel node is an accurate predictor of the status of the axillary nodes in breast cancer, the efficacy and safety of sentinel-node biopsy require validation. METHODS From March 1998 to December 1999, we randomly assigned 516 patients with primary breast cancer in whom the tumor was(More)
The present study compared the performance of a multidimensional patient satisfaction questionnaire according to the timing of questionnaire administration. Comparisons were made in terms of: (a) the completeness and representativeness of the data set (number of missing questionnaires, number missing item responses, respondents' representativeness to the(More)
BACKGROUND Few randomised studies have compared intermittent hormonal therapy (IHT) with continuous therapy for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa). OBJECTIVE To determine whether intermittent therapy is associated with a shorter time to progression. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS 766 patients with locally advanced or metastatic PCa(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the effect of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on quality of life (QoL) and to determine its extent across a variety of cultures, and the confounding effects of self-reported comorbidities and demographics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Data were obtained from two population-based studies in five cities: UREPIK (Boxmeer, the(More)
PURPOSE Both therapeutic and adverse effects of tamoxifen may be related to its tissue concentrations. We investigated concentrations of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, and N-didesmethyltamoxifen in serum, normal breast, and breast cancer tissues during conventional dosage and two low-dose regimens. Furthermore we studied tamoxifen(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. There is evidence that hygienic cleaning has a role in the control of hospital-acquired infections. This study aimed to evaluate the potential impact of one additional cleaner by using microbiological standards based on aerobic colony counts and the(More)
PURPOSE Tamoxifen and fenretinide are active in reducing premenopausal breast cancer risk and work synergistically in preclinical models. The authors assessed their combination in a two-by-two biomarker trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 235 premenopausal women with pT1mic/pT1a breast cancer (n = 21), or intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN, n = 160), or(More)
We analyzed data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of H1N1pdm influenza in the UK to 10th June 2009 to estimate epidemiological characteristics. We estimated a mean incubation period of 2.05 days and serial interval of 2.5 days with infectivity peaking close to onset of symptoms. Transmission was initially sporadic but increased from mid-May in England and(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the association between long-term exposure to black smoke (BS) air pollution and mortality in two related Scottish cohorts with 25 years of follow-up. METHODS Risk factors were collected during 1970-1976 for 15331 and 6680 participants in the Renfrew/Paisley and Collaborative cohorts respectively. Exposure to BS during(More)
PURPOSE Some studies have suggested an increased risk of breast cancer associated with elevated fasting serum glucose in nondiabetic subjects. Given how common both breast cancer and impaired glucose tolerance are in our aging societies, this is an important issue for public health. METHODS We performed a systematic review of prospective cohort studies(More)