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The cryopreservation of organs became an active area of research in the 1950s as a result of the rediscovery of the cryoprotective properties of glycerol by Polge, Smith, and Parkes in 1949. Over the ensuing four decades of research in this area, the advantages of vitrification, or ice-free cryopreservation, have become apparent. To date, experimental(More)
Small concentrations of the synthetic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were found to inhibit formation of ice in water/cryoprotectant solutions. Ice inhibition improved with decreasing molecular weight. A PVA copolymer of molecular weight 2 kDa consisting of 20% vinyl acetate was found to be particularly effective. PVA copolymer concentrations of 0.001,(More)
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