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BTRFS is a Linux filesystem that has been adopted as the default filesystem in some popular versions of Linux. It is based on copy-on-write, allowing for efficient snapshots and clones. It uses B-trees as its main on-disk data structure. The design goal is to work well for many use cases and workloads. To this end, much effort has been directed to(More)
Managing a fixed amount of memory (RAM) optimally is a long-solved problem in the Linux kernel. Managing RAM optimally in a virtual environment, however , is still a challenging problem because: (1) each guest kernel focuses solely on optimizing its entire fixed RAM allocation oblivious to the needs of other guests, and (2) very little information is(More)
BACKGROUND Several methods have been used to induce somatic cells to re-enter the pluripotent state. Viral transduction of reprogramming genes yields higher efficiency but involves random insertions of viral sequences into the human genome. Although induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be obtained with the removable PiggyBac transposon system or an(More)
'There are already a lot of definitions, but all are lengthy and not the sort of thing scientists, start-ups or advocates can say succinctly when a pharma executive, government minister or member of the public asks for clarification.' While it could be said that regenerative medicine is what this journal publishes, that would be cyclical. It could also be(More)
The cell membrane and cytoskeleton are dynamic structures that are strongly influenced by the thermo-mechanical background in addition to biologically driven mechanical processes. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure the local membrane motion of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) which were found to be governed by random and non-random correlated(More)
Conceptually, fast server-side page cache storage could dramatically reduce paging I/O. In this workshop extended abstract, we speculate how such a device might be used, then show how it can be implemented virtually in a hypervisor. We then introduce hcache (pronounced " aitch-cash "), our prototype implementation built on the Xen hypervisor and utilized by(More)