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In this article, it is shown that under certain conditions, the spectral difference (SD) method is independent of the position of the solution points. This greatly simplifies the design of such schemes, and it also offers the possibility of a significant increase in the efficiency of the method. Furthermore, an accuracy and stability study, based on wave(More)
Aerosol deposition efficiency (DE) in the extrathoracic airways during mouth breathing is currently documented only for the inspiratory phase of respiration, and there is a need for quantification of expiratory DE. Our aim was to study both inspiratory and expiratory DE in a realistic upper airway geometry. This was done experimentally on a physical upper(More)
Patients referred for treatment of tracheal stenosis typically are asymptomatic until critical narrowing of the airway occurs, which then requires immediate intervention. To understand how tracheal stenosis affects local pressure drops and explore how a dramatic increase in pressure drop could possibly be detected at an early stage, a computational fluid(More)
We investigated the axial dispersive effect of the upper airway structure (comprising mouth cavity, oropharynx, and trachea) on a traversing aerosol bolus. This was done by means of aerosol bolus experiments on a hollow cast of a realistic upper airway model (UAM) and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in the same UAM geometry.(More)
The extra-thoracic mouth-throat area has a major influence on the aerosol delivery to the proximal or peripheral intra-thoracic airways. To characterize the particle deposition in this area, it is important to investigate first the flow structures in this crucial--in relation to the aerosol deposition--region. The glottis, which is delimited by the vocal(More)