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BACKGROUND HIV prevalence varies between 0.8 and 20.2% in Kenya's various ethnic groups. The reasons underlying these variations have not been evaluated before. METHODS We used data from seven national surveys spanning the period 1989 to 2008 to compare the prevalence of a range of risk factors in Kenya's ethnic groups. Spearman's and linear regression(More)
Knowledge of local antibiotic sensitivities is crucial to creating appropriate empiric antibiotic guidelines. The new National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) Data Warehouse allows clinicians to access collated spreadsheets of culture isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for their facilities. We used this service to study the trends in blood(More)
Background. This paper investigates two issues: do ethnic/racial groups with high HIV prevalences also have higher prevalences of other STIs? and is HIV prevalence by ethnic group correlated with the prevalence of circumcision, concurrency, or having more than one partner in the preceding year? Methods. We used Spearman's correlation to estimate the(More)
BACKGROUND As HIV remains a public health concern, increased testing among those at risk for HIV acquisition is important. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the most important group for targeted HIV testing in Europe. Several new strategies have been developed and implemented to increase HIV-testing uptake in this group, among them the Swab2know project.(More)
BACKGROUND It is not known if there is a difference in the immune response to syphilis between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS We prospectively recruited all patients with a new diagnosis of syphilis and tested their plasma for IFNα, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10 and(More)
BACKGROUND Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising and effective tool to prevent HIV. With the approval of Truvada as daily PrEP by the European Commission in August 2016, individual European Member states prepare themselves for PrEP implementation following the examples of France and Norway. However, context-specific data to guide optimal(More)
Objective. There is a large variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) between different countries and between racial groups within countries. Sexual partner concurrency may play a role. We investigate the correlation between the prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and TV prevalence. Methods. Spearman's correlation to assess relationship(More)
BACKGROUND HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia's eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. METHODS We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the(More)
BACKGROUND The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS(More)
BACKGROUND How can we explain the uneven decline of syphilis around the world following the introduction of penicillin? In this paper we use antenatal syphilis prevalence (ASP) to investigate how syphilis prevalence varied worldwide in the past century, and what risk factors correlate with this variance. METHODS 1) A systematic review using PubMed and(More)