Chris Janetopoulos

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Receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) was visualized in living Dictyostelium discoideum cells by monitoring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between alpha- and beta- subunits fused to cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins. The G-protein heterotrimer rapidly dissociated and reassociated upon addition and(More)
Directional sensing and polarization are fundamental cellular responses that play a central role in health and disease. In this review we define each process and evaluate a series of models previously proposed to explain these phenomena. New findings show that directional sensing by G protein-coupled receptors is localized at a discrete step in the(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)gamma and Dictyostelium PI3K are activated via G protein-coupled receptors through binding to the Gbetagamma subunit and Ras. However, the mechanistic role(s) of Gbetagamma and Ras in PI3K activation remains elusive. Furthermore, the dynamics and function of PI3K activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli have not(More)
Experiments in amoebae and neutrophils have shown that local accumulations of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] mediate the ability of cells to migrate during gradient sensing. To define the nature of this response, we subjected Dictyostelium discoideum cells to measurable temporal and spatial chemotactic inputs and analyzed the(More)
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a useful model system for analyzing development of the inner ear. A number of mutations affecting the inner ear have been identified. Here we investigate the initial stages of otolith morphogenesis in wild-type embryos as well as in monolith (mnl) mutant embryos, which fail to form anterior otoliths but otherwise appear(More)
The directional movement of cells in chemoattractant gradients requires sophisticated control of the actin cytoskeleton. Uniform exposure of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae as well as mammalian leukocytes to chemoattractant triggers two phases of actin polymerization. In the initial rapid phase, motility stops and the cell rounds up. During the second slow(More)
Chemotaxing cells, such as Dictyostelium and mammalian neutrophils, sense shallow chemoattractant gradients and respond with highly polarized changes in cell morphology and motility. Uniform chemoattractant stimulation induces the transient translocations of several downstream signaling components, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), tensin homology(More)
Although fluorescence microscopy provides a crucial window into the physiology of living specimens, many biological processes are too fragile, are too small, or occur too rapidly to see clearly with existing tools. We crafted ultrathin light sheets from two-dimensional optical lattices that allowed us to image three-dimensional (3D) dynamics for hundreds of(More)
Polarity is a prominent feature of both chemotaxis and cytokinesis. In chemotaxis, polarity is established by local accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3 at the cell's leading edge, achieved through temporal and spatial regulation of PI3 kinases and the tumor suppressor, PTEN. We find that as migrating D. discoideum cells round up to enter cytokinesis, PI(3,4,5)P3(More)
Dictyostelium discoideum shows chemotaxis towards folic acid (FA) throughout vegetative growth, and towards cAMP during development. We determined the spatiotemporal localization of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules and investigated the FA-mediated responses in a number of signaling mutants to further our understanding of the core regulatory elements(More)