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BACKGROUND How different immune cell compartments contribute to a successful immune response is central to fully understanding the mechanisms behind normal processes such as tissue repair and the pathology of inflammatory diseases. However, the ability to observe and characterize such interactions, in real-time, within a living vertebrate has proved(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the form of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), is a debilitating chronic immune disorder of the intestine. A complex etiology resulting from dysfunctional interactions between the intestinal immune system and its microflora, influenced by host genetic susceptibility, makes disease modeling challenging.(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause serious infection in those with deficient or impaired phagocytes. We have developed the optically transparent and genetically tractable zebrafish embryo as a model for systemic P. aeruginosa infection. Despite lacking adaptive immunity at this developmental stage, zebrafish embryos(More)
Lipid accumulation in arteries induces vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, the major cause of heart attack and stroke in humans. Extreme hyperlipidemia induced in mice and rabbits enables modeling many aspects of human atherosclerosis, but microscopic examination of plaques is possible only postmortem. Here we report that feeding adult zebrafish(More)
The immune response of a host to an invading pathogen is dependent on the capacity of its immune cell compartment to recognize highly conserved pathogen components using an ancient class of pattern recognition receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Initiation of TLR-mediated signaling results in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines that help(More)
Prompt neutrophil arrival is critical for host defense immediately after injury [1-3]. Following wounding, a hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) burst generated in injured tissues is the earliest known leukocyte chemoattractant [4]. Generating this tissue-scale H(2)O(2) gradient uses dual oxidase [4] and neutrophils sense H(2)O(2) by a mechanism involving the LYN(More)
The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton develops via a complex process involving signaling cascades in all three germ layers. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for several steps in pharyngeal arch development. In zebrafish, Fgf3 and Fgf8 in the mesoderm and hindbrain have an early role to pattern the pouch endoderm, influencing craniofacial(More)
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a powerful experimental model in drug discovery and environmental toxicology. Drug discovery screens performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy the tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and fish embryo toxicity assay (FET) is one of the most promising alternative(More)
In 2011, during discussions at various conferences, as well as informally with authors, readers, reviewers, and editors, we were struck by one resonating theme: the view that PLoS Computational Biology has helped to create a sense of community amongst a broad group of scientists and educators. While the journal labels itself as a PLoS ''community'' journal,(More)
STAT3 belongs to the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family. Activation of STAT3 via the LIF receptor/ gp130 signaling complex allows the derivation and propagation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from mouse blastocysts in the presence of feeders. Intriguingly, ES cells have not been established from some strains of mice, and not at(More)