Chris J Maddison

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Across vertebrate species, 17β-estradiol (E(2)) acts on the brain via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms to influence neuronal physiology and behavior. Nongenomic E(2) signaling is typically initiated by membrane-associated estrogen receptors that modulate intracellular signaling cascades, including rapid phosphorylation of ERK. Phosphorylated ERK(More)
It is well known that songbirds produce high amplitude songs ("broadcast songs"). Songbirds also produce low amplitude songs ("soft songs") during courtship or territorial aggression in the breeding season. Soft songs are important social signals but have been studied far less than broadcast songs. To date, no studies have examined seasonal changes in soft(More)
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