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Paid and volunteer crowd work have emerged as a means for harnessing human intelligence for performing diverse tasks. However, little is known about the relative performance of volunteer versus paid crowd work, and how financial incentives influence the quality and efficiency of output. We study the performance of volunteers as well as workers paid with(More)
The contributions of everyday individuals to significant research has grown dramatically beyond the early days of classical birdwatching and endeavors of amateurs of the 19 th century. Now people who are casually interested in science can participate directly in research covering diverse scientific fields. Regarding astronomy, volunteers, either as(More)
Camera traps (remote, automatic cameras) are revolutionizing large-scale studies in ecology. The Serengeti Lion Project has used camera traps to produce over 1.5 million pictures of animals in the Serengeti. To analyze these pictures, the Project created Snapshot Serengeti, a citizen science website where volunteers can help classify animals. To increase(More)
—In the late nineteenth century, two excavators from the University of Oxford uncovered a vast trove of naturally deteriorated papyri, numbering over 500,000 fragments, from the city of Oxyrhynchus. With varying levels and forms of deterioration, the identification of a papyrus fragment can become a repetitive, long, and exhausting process for a(More)
Our understanding of the notion " dynamic system " is a rather broad one: such a system has states, which can change over time. Ontologies are used to describe the states of the system, possibly in an incomplete way. Monitoring is then concerned with deciding whether some run of the system or all of its runs satisfy a certain property, which can be(More)
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