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Recognition of an avirulent pathogen stimulates an oxidative burst generating O2- and H2O2, and these reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) cue the induction of defense genes and cell death in the development of a restricted lesion. This localized hypersensitive response (HR) is accompanied by the development of systemic acquired resistance to virulent(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a widespread signaling molecule, and numerous targets of its action exist in plants. Whereas the activity of NO in erythrocytes, microorganisms, and invertebrates has been shown to be regulated by several hemoglobins, the function of plant hemoglobins in NO detoxification has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that Arabidopsis(More)
Recent experiments indicate that nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in disease resistance and several other physiological processes in plants. However, most of the current information about the function of NO in plants is based on pharmacological studies, and additional approaches are therefore required to ascertain the role of NO as an important(More)
BACKGROUND Avirulent pathogens elicit a battery of plant defenses, often accompanied by collapse of the challenged cells. In soybean cells, sustained accumulation of H2O2 from an oxidative burst cues localized host cell death. Such hypersensitive cell death appears to be an active process, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying cellular(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examines the utility of new measures of event-related spatio-temporal waves in the EEG as a marker of ADHD, previously shown to be closely related to the P3 ERP in an adult sample. METHODS Wave activity in the EEG was assessed during both an auditory Oddball and a visual continuous performance task (CPT) for an ADHD group ranging in(More)
Treatment of bean or soybean cells with fungal elicitor or glutathione causes a rapid insolubilization of preexisting (hydroxy)proline-rich structural proteins in the cell wall. This insolubilization, which involves H2O2-mediated oxidative cross-linking, is initiated within 2 min and is complete within 10 min under optimal conditions, and hence, precedes(More)
An assay was developed to study plant receptor kinase activation and signaling mechanisms. The extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and transmembrane domains of the Arabidopsis receptor kinase BRI1, which is implicated in brassinosteroid signaling, were fused to the serine/threonine kinase domain of XA21, the rice disease resistance receptor. The(More)
Most plant-microbe interactions do not result in disease; natural products restrict non-host pathogens. We found that sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate), a natural product derived from aliphatic glucosinolates, inhibits growth in Arabidopsis of non-host Pseudomonas bacteria in planta. Multiple sax genes (saxCAB/F/D/G) were identified in(More)
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is encoded by a small family of genes in Arabidopsis. We cloned and partially characterized one of these genes, PAL1. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly similar to PAL from bean, parsley, and rice. The promoter contains sequence elements homologous to two putative regulatory elements conserved among several(More)