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Single cell experiments in primates show that there are two major parallel pathways named after the lamination in the lateral geniculate nucleus. Each of these systems can be preferentially excited by appropriate stimuli. Here we report that in man the polarity of the evoked potentials both in retina and in cortex depends on which of these pathways is(More)
The mitochondrial theory of aging argues that oxidative stress, caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations, is associated with decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production leading to cellular degeneration. The rate of this degradation is linked to metabolic demand, with the outer retina having the greatest in the body, showing progressive inflammation,(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the electrophysiological and histopathological features of a retinal degenerative disease in a colony of miniature longhaired dachshunds known to have a form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). METHODS Serial electroretinograms were recorded from affected homozygous (n = 36) and heterozygous (n = 15) dogs. Morphologic(More)
PURPOSE To compare visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and contrast sensitivity in adults with early- or late-onset strabismic amblyopia. METHODS Twelve adults with early- and 12 with late-onset strabismic amblyopia with similar ranges of visual acuity were studied. Pattern-onset VEPs to 30-minute checks were recorded at a range of contrast levels. Contrast(More)
PURPOSE Studies in nonhuman primates show that monocular visual deprivation starting at different ages has different effects on cells in the parvocellular and magnocellular laminae of the lateral geniculate nucleus. The present study used color and luminance contrast sensitivity (CS) measurements to look for differences in parvocellular- and(More)
Inflammation is an umbrella feature of ageing. It is present in the aged retina and many retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In ageing and in AMD mitochondrial function declines. In normal ageing this can be manipulated by brief exposure to 670 nm light on the retina, which increases mitochondrial membrane potential and(More)
A gold foil ERG electrode is described. The device is inexpensive and simple to fabricate. Since it is hooked over the lower lid and makes minimal touch contact with the inferior limbal area, it can be used in circumstances which require prolonged testing of retinal function or in eyes with corneal pathology. Because the optics of the eye are not(More)
An electroretinographic (ERG) technique is described in which the relationship between scotopic b wave amplitude and stimulus light intensity is determined. The relative amplitude of scotopic to photopic responses is assessed by means of red light and flicker. The method is applied to the detection of ERG abnormalities in heterozygotes for X-linked(More)
PURPOSE To investigate retinal function in patients with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) and to correlate the findings with fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging. METHODS FAF was imaged in five patients (age range, 49-60 years) confirmed to have the mitochondrial DNA nucleotide A3243G point mutation. Retinal function was measured by(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the clinical, psychophysical, and electrophysiological phenotype of 19 patients with enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) and relate the phenotype to the underlying genetic mutation. METHODS Patients underwent ophthalmic examination and functional testing including pattern ERG, full-field ERG, and long-duration and short-wavelength(More)