Conventional encryption technology often requires users to protect a secret key by selecting a password or passphrase. While a good passphrase will only be known to the user, it also has the flaw that it must be remembered exactly in order to recover the secret key. As time passes, the ability to remember the passphrase fades and the user may eventually… (More)
We evaluate constructions for building pseudo-random functions (PRFs) from pseudo-random permutations (PRPs). We present two constructions: a slower construction which preserves the security of the PRP and a faster construction which has less security. One application of our construction is to build a wider block cipher given a block cipher as a building… (More)
Building on the work of Kocher Koc96], we introduce the notion of em side-channel cryptanalysis: cryptanalysis using implementation data. We discuss the notion of side-channel attacks and the vulner-abilities they introduce, demonstrate side-channel attacks against three product ciphers|timing attack against IDEA, processor-ag attack against RC5, and… (More)
BACKGROUND How different immune cell compartments contribute to a successful immune response is central to fully understanding the mechanisms behind normal processes such as tissue repair and the pathology of inflammatory diseases. However, the ability to observe and characterize such interactions, in real-time, within a living vertebrate has proved… (More)
In this paper we discuss PRNGs: the mechanisms used by real-world secure systems to generate cryptographic keys, initialization vectors, " random " nonces, and other values assumed to be random. We argue that PRNGs are their own unique type of cryptographic primitive, and should be analyzed as such. We propose a model for PRNGs, discuss possible attacks… (More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the form of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), is a debilitating chronic immune disorder of the intestine. A complex etiology resulting from dysfunctional interactions between the intestinal immune system and its microflora, influenced by host genetic susceptibility, makes disease modeling challenging.… (More)
We introduce the notion of key stretching, a mechanism to convert short s-bit keys into longer keys, such that the complexity required to brute-force search a s + t-bit keyspace is the same as the time required to brute-force search a s-bit key stretched by t bits.
We examine the problem of putting a casino on the Internet. We discuss fairly generating random bits and permutations for use in casino games, protecting against player/player and player/dealer collusions, and ensuring a secure audit trail that both the player and dealer can use to ensure payment of debts. We conclude with a series of open problems.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause serious infection in those with deficient or impaired phagocytes. We have developed the optically transparent and genetically tractable zebrafish embryo as a model for systemic P. aeruginosa infection. Despite lacking adaptive immunity at this developmental stage, zebrafish embryos… (More)
We present attacks against the McEliece Public-Key Cryp-tosystem, the Atjai-Dwork Public-Key Cryptosystem, and variants of those systems. Most of these systems base their security on the apparent intractibility of one or more problems. The attacks we present do not violate the intractibility of the underlying problems, but instead obtain information about… (More)