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We describe the design and trial of a remotely conducted surgical master class, using a haptic virtual environment as an integral part of the learning process. In the trial, we linked a haptic virtual environment in Canberra, Australia with a second installation at Stanford University, California. We were testing several haptic components of the system, and(More)
2. The Reachin API and the ARToolKit This paper describes the integration of the ARToolKit with the Reachin Core Technology API. The result is a system capable of providing a coherent mix of real world video, computer haptics and computer graphics. A key feature is that new applications can be rapidly developed. Ultimately, this system will be used to(More)
Networked virtual environments using haptic interfaces can be used for surgical training and support both a simulation component and a communication component. We present such an environment for training in surgery of the temporal bone, which emphasises communication between an instructor and a student. We give an overview of the learning requirements for(More)
This paper introduces a haptic virtual environment in which two users can collaboratively sculpt a virtual clay model, working from different physical locations connected by the internet. They view their virtual sculpting tools and the clay model in 3D, feel the tool’s pressure on the clay as they work, and have their hands co-located with the view of the(More)
Much confusion and frustration has been caused by the inability of workers in acupuncture to demonstrate the exact nature of acupuncture loci or to identify them in neuroanatomic terms. This study reviews 70 selected, commonly-used acupuncture loci. Loci were determined by their traditional descriptions and checked with a neurometer and calibration-stable(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the content validity and concurrent validity of a haptically (force feedback) rendered, virtual reality simulation of temporal bone surgery. METHODS Eleven naive surgical trainees were given a 1-hour lesson on the operation, cortical mastoidectomy, in the virtual environment with the trainer on a networked simulator and then asked to(More)