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We describe the design and trial of a remotely conducted surgical master class, using a haptic virtual environment as an integral part of the learning process. In the trial, we linked a haptic virtual environment in Canberra, Australia with a second installation at Stanford University, California. We were testing several haptic components of the system, and(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the content validity and concurrent validity of a haptically (force feedback) rendered, virtual reality simulation of temporal bone surgery. METHODS Eleven naive surgical trainees were given a 1-hour lesson on the operation, cortical mastoidectomy, in the virtual environment with the trainer on a networked simulator and then asked to(More)
2. The Reachin API and the ARToolKit This paper describes the integration of the ARToolKit with the Reachin Core Technology API. The result is a system capable of providing a coherent mix of real world video, computer haptics and computer graphics. A key feature is that new applications can be rapidly developed. Ultimately, this system will be used to(More)
This paper is a discussion of our experience in designing perceptual representations for virtual environments for surgical training. Networked virtual environments can be used for training and education, and indeed can have some benefits over hands-on training in the real world. In designing content for such an environment there is a tension between(More)
This sketch describes a collaborative virtual environment application involving haptic interaction over long Internet distances. We have developed algorithms to accommodate significant latency for certain applications, notably in the medical domain. The results have shown that we can manipulate simulated human body organs, as well as guide each other's(More)