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Multiple ancient genome duplications in Arabidopsis thaliana provide unique opportunities to assess factors that influence the fates of duplicated genes. We have found that genes retained in duplicate following one round of genome duplication are significantly more likely to be retained in duplicate again after a subsequent genome duplication. Genes(More)
BACKGROUND Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) catalyze the formation of the second messenger guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) from guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP). Cyclic GMP has been implicated in an increasing number of plant processes, including responses to abiotic stresses such as dehydration and salt, as well as hormones. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS Here we(More)
A family of peptide signaling molecules (AtPeps) and their plasma membrane receptor AtPepR1 are known to act in pathogen-defense signaling cascades in plants. Little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms that link these signaling peptides and their receptor, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, to downstream pathogen-defense responses. We(More)
World food security is increasingly dependent on continuous crop improvement and, in particular, the development of crops with increased drought and salinity tolerance. The completed genomic sequence of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the development of whole-genome microarrays, together with increasing repositories of publicly available data and(More)
Here, we analyse the temporal signatures of ozone (O3)-induced hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) and the role of the second messenger guanosine3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in transcriptional changes of genes diagnostic for biotic and abiotic stress responses. Within 90 min O3 induced H2O2 and NO peaks and we demonstrate that NO donors cause(More)
BACKGROUND The carotenoids are pure isoprenoids that are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus and are coordinately synthesized with chlorophylls in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis or the mechanisms that coordinate this synthesis with that of chlorophylls and other plastidial(More)
Plant pathogenic bacteria cause diseases in important crops and seriously and negatively impact agricultural production. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants resist bacterial infection at the stage of the basal immune response or mount a successful specific R-dependent defense response is crucial since a better understanding of the(More)
Cyclic mononucleotides are messengers in plant stress responses. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces rapid net K(+)-efflux and Ca(2+)-influx in Arabidopsis roots. Pre-treatment with either 10μM cAMP or cGMP for 1 or 24h does significantly reduce net K(+)-leakage and Ca(2+)-influx, and in the case of the K(+)-fluxes, the cell permeant cyclic(More)
In plants, the cysteine-rich repeat kinases (CRKs) are a sub-family of receptor-like protein kinases that contain the DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains. It has been shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana, CRK20 is transcriptionally induced by pathogens, salicylic acid and ozone (O(3)). However, its role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress remains(More)