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Pesticide resistance in arthropods has been shown to evolve by two main mechanisms, the enhanced production of metabolic enzymes, which bind to and/or detoxify the pesticide, and mutation of the target protein, which makes it less sensitive to the pesticide. One route that leads to enhanced metabolism is the duplication or amplification of the structural(More)
The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown(More)
Diamide insecticides such as chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide are a new class of insecticide that selectively target insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), a distinct class of homo-tetrameric calcium release channels which play a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis in numerous cell types. Resistance to these insecticides has recently been reported in the(More)
Myzus persicae is a globally important aphid pest with a history of developing resistance to insecticides. Unusually, neonicotinoids have remained highly effective as control agents despite nearly two decades of steadily increasing use. In this study, a clone of M. persicae collected from southern France was found, for the first time, to exhibit(More)
As part of a program to monitor the susceptibility of cat flea populations to the insecticide imidacloprid we have examined the cat flea nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the target site protein of the neonicotinoid group of insecticides. Seven nAChR subunits (six alpha-type and one beta-type) were identified in cat flea using a degenerate PCR-based(More)
The aphid Myzus persicae is a globally significant crop pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of insecticide. To date, the neonicotinoids, an economically important class of insecticides that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), have remained an effective control measure; however, recent reports of resistance in(More)
Detection of the four malaria-causing Plasmodium species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae) within their mosquito hosts is an essential component of vector control programmes. Several PCR protocols have been developed for this purpose. Many of these methods, while sensitive, require multiple PCR reactions to(More)
The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is widespread throughout much of Europe where it is a major coleopteran pest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The reliance on synthetic insecticides for control, particularly the pyrethroid class, has led to the development of populations with high levels of resistance. Resistance to pyrethroids is now widespread(More)
Host plant shifts of herbivorous insects may be a first step toward sympatric speciation and can create new pests of agriculturally important crops; however, the molecular mechanisms that mediate this process are poorly understood. Certain races of the polyphagous aphid Myzus persicae have recently adapted to feed on tobacco (Myzus persicae nicotianae) and(More)
BACKGROUND Myzus persicae is a globally important aphid pest that is mainly controlled through the application of chemical insecticides. Recently, a clone of M. persicae exhibiting control-compromising levels of resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides was described. The resistance of this clone was associated with reduced affinity of imidacloprid for the(More)