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Although hyphal fusion has been well documented in mature colonies of filamentous fungi, it has been little studied during colony establishment. Here we show that specialized hyphae, called conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs), are produced by all types of conidia and by conidial germ tubes of Neurospora crassa. The CAT is shown to be a cellular element that(More)
Suspicion has been raised that high aspect ratio nanoparticles or nanofibers might possess asbestos-like pathogenicity. The pleural space is a specific target for disease in individuals exposed to asbestos and by implication of nanofibers. Pleural effects of fibers depends on fiber length, but the key threshold length beyond which adverse effects occur has(More)
The assembly of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in lipid-rafts was examined in Hep2 cells. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that during RSV assembly, the cellular distribution of the complement regulatory proteins, decay accelerating factor (CD55) and CD59, changes and high levels of these cellular proteins are incorporated into mature virus(More)
A simple biosurfactant-based hydrophobization procedure for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cryogels was developed allowing effective immobilization of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria. The resulting partially hydrophobized PVA cryogel granules (granule volume 5 microl) contained sufficient number (6.5 x 10(3)) of viable bacterial cells per granule, possessed high(More)
The role of the unique plant calpain Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1) in development has remained unclear due to the severity of mutant phenotypes. Here, we used complementation studies of the embryo-lethal mutant to dissect DEK1 protein behavior and to show that DEK1 plays a key role in growth regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that although full-length(More)
Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the tree line in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is(More)
Pieces of an embryogenic mass (EMS) induced in culture from immature fruits of pistachio, Pistacia vera L., were encapsulated into calcium alginate beads. Somatic embryos were also encapsulated individually into calcium alginate beads to produce synthetic seeds. The viability of the encapsulated EMS and somatic embryos was investigated immediately following(More)
In higher plants, plasmodesmata (PD) are major conduits for cell-cell communication. Primary PD are laid down at cytokinesis, while secondary PD arise during wall extension. During leaf development, the basal cell walls of trichomes extend radially without division, providing a convenient system for studying the origin of secondary PD. We devised a simple(More)
This paper examines the mean flowering times of 11 plant species in the British Isles over a 58-year period, and the flowering times of a further 13 (and leafing time of an additional 1) for a reduced period of 20 years. Timings were compared to Central England temperatures and all 25 phenological events were significantly related (P<0.001 in all but 1(More)
During Arabidopsis seed development, the growing embryo invades and consumes the surrounding endosperm tissue. The signalling pathways that coordinate the separation of the embryo from the endosperm and the concomitant breakdown of the endosperm are poorly understood. We have identified a novel bHLH transcription factor, ZHOUPI (ZOU), which mediates these(More)