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The Children's Nonword Repetition Test (CNRep) was given 39 children with persistent language impairment (LI), 13 with a history of having received speech-language therapy (resolved LI), and 79 controls, all aged from 7 to 9 years. The children with LI were twins who had participated in a previous genetic study. Children with resolved LI, as well as those(More)
Island ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to exotic species. Here we show how an introduced prey has led to the wholesale restructuring of an island food web, including the near extinction of an endemic carnivore. Introduced pigs, by providing abundant food, enabled golden eagles to colonize the California Channel Islands. Eagles preyed heavily on the(More)
Williams Syndrome (WS) is marked by a relative strength in verbal cognition coupled with a serious impairment in non-verbal cognition. A strong deficit in numerical cognition has been anecdotally reported in this disorder; however, its nature has not been systematically investigated. Here, we tested 14 children with WS (mean age=7 years 2 months), 14(More)
The effect of regional accent on children's processing of speech is a theoretically and practically important aspect of phonological development that has been little researched. 48 children from London, aged four and seven years old, were tested on their ability to repeat and define single words presented in their own accent and in a Glaswegian accent.(More)
A sample (n=48) of eight-year-olds with specific language impairments is compared with age-matched (n=55) and language matched controls (n=55) on a range of tasks designed to test the interdependence of language and mathematical development. Performance across tasks varies substantially in the SLI group, showing profound deficits in production of the count(More)
Linguistic and cognitive correlates of social skill were examined in a clinically selected sample of children with communication disorders. Thirty-two children aged between 5 and 10 years were assessed using a questionnaire-based sociability scale. Specially designed measures of verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory span were administered, as well as(More)
Concordance rates were compared for 63 monozygotic (MZ) and 27 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex twin pairs, aged seven years and over, selected because at least one twin met diagnostic criteria for specific speech or language impairment. There was significant heritability for developmental speech and language disorder, defined according to DSM-II-R criteria. When(More)
A sample of 4,243 residents of Manchester, England and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, aged 50 to 93 years, completed the Beck Depression Scale (A.T. Beck, C.H. Ward, M. Mendelson, J. Mock, & J. Erbaugh, 1961) and a battery of 6 different cognitive tests. Beck scores were low, indicating gradations of dysphoria rather than clinical depression. Beck scores did(More)
Despite the fact that developmental impairments of number skills are common, they remain sparsely investigated. We explored low-level numerical representations and their developmental trajectory in a developmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS). Groups of WS and typically developing (TD) individuals estimated rapidly-presented arrays of 5, 7, 9, and 11(More)
The number skills of groups of 7 to 9 year old children with specific language impairment (SLI) attending mainstream or special schools are compared with an age and nonverbal reasoning matched group (AC), and a younger group matched on oral language comprehension. The SLI groups performed below the AC group on every skill. They also showed lower working(More)