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A masked priming procedure was used to explore developmental changes in the tuning of lexical word recognition processes. Lexical tuning was assessed by examining the degree of masked form priming and used two different types of prime-target lexical similarity: one letter different (e.g., rlay-->PLAY) and transposed letters (e.g., lpay-->PLAY). The(More)
When the talker’s face (visual speech) can be seen, speech perception is both facilitated (for congruent visual speech) and interfered with (for incongruent visual speech). The current study investigated whether the degree of these visual speech effects was affected by the presence of an additional irrelevant talking face. In the experiment, auditory speech(More)
The current research uses a novel methodology to examine the role of semantics in reading aloud. Participants were trained to read aloud 2 sets of novel words (i.e., nonwords such as bink): some with meanings (semantic) and some without (nonsemantic). A comparison of reading aloud performance between these 2 sets of novel words was used to provide an(More)
This study investigated the linguistic processing of visual speech (video of a talker's utterance without audio) by determining if such has the capacity to prime subsequently presented word and nonword targets. The priming procedure is well suited for the investigation of whether speech perception is amodal since visual speech primes can be used with(More)
It is widely assumed that the fusiform face area (FFA), a brain region specialized for face perception, is not involved in processing emotional expressions. This assumption is based on the proposition that the FFA is involved in face identification and only processes features that are invariant across changes due to head movements, speaking and expressing(More)
This study investigated whether masked priming is mediated by existing memory representations by determining whether nonwords targets would show repetition priming. To avoid the potential confound that nonword repetition priming would be obscured by a familiarity response bias, the standard lexical decision and naming tasks were modified to make targets(More)
The cognitive abilities that predicted growth in response to a 12-week training program in phonological awareness were investigated with a sample of 100 kindergarten children. The children were selected from two elementary schools with historically low achievement in reading. Sixty children received training in both analytic and synthetic awareness skills,(More)
The development of a green-by-design, two-step, three-enzyme process for the synthesis of a key intermediate in the manufacture of atorvastatin, the active ingredient of the cholesterol lowering drug Lipitor R ©, is described. The first step involves the biocatalytic reduction of ethyl-4-chloroacetoacetate using a ketoreductase (KRED) in combination with(More)
We investigated audio-visual (AV) perceptual integration by examining the effect of seeing the speaker's synchronised moving face on masked-speech detection ability. Signal amplification and higher-level cognitive accounts of an AV advantage were contrasted, the latter by varying whether participants knew the language of the speaker. An AV advantage was(More)