Chris D Smith

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Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae,(More)
Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contains ∼4000 novel genes, but only 64 of these genes are conserved(More)
Spiperone (1) is a widely used pharmacological tool that acts as a potent dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT1A, and serotonin 5-HT2A antagonist. Although spiperone also binds at 5-HT2C receptors, it is one of the very few agents that display some (ca. 1000-fold) binding selectivity for 5-HT2A versus 5-HT2C receptors and, hence, might serve as a useful template for(More)
Carvedilol is one of the most effective beta blockers for preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias in heart failure, but the mechanisms underlying its favorable antiarrhythmic benefits remain unclear. Spontaneous Ca2+ waves, also called store overload–induced Ca2+ release (SOICR), evoke ventricular tachyarrhythmias in individuals with heart failure. Here we(More)
A large series of beta-carbolines was examined for their ability to bind at [3H]agonist-labeled 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors. Selected beta-carbolines were also examined at 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptors, 5-HT(1A) serotonin receptors, dopamine D(2) receptors, and benzodiazepine receptors. Indolealkylamines and phenylisopropylamines were also evaluated in some(More)
In humans, 5-HT1D serotonin receptors represent terminal autoreceptors, and there is some evidence that 5-HT1D ligands may be useful in the treatment of migraine. The most widely used 5-HT1D agonist is sumatriptan; however, this agent reportedly displays little selectivity for 5-HT1D versus 5-HT1A receptors. To identify novel serotonergic agents with(More)
Carvedilol is the current β-blocker of choice for suppressing ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT). However, carvedilol's benefits are dose-limited, attributable to its potent β-blocking activity that can lead to bradycardia and hypotension. The clinically used carvedilol is a racemic mixture of β-blocking S-carvedilol and non-β-blocking R-carvedilol. We(More)
Cyclic seleninate esters serve as catalysts for the rapid oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides, alkenes to epoxides, and enamines to α-hydroxyketones. Optimal conditions were found that minimize the overoxidation of the product sulfoxides to sulfones and the hydrolysis of epoxides to diols. In some examples such as styrene derivatives, oxidative cleavage was(More)
Differentially substituted 1,3-diaryl-substituted allylic cations generated by ionization of the corresponding allylic alcohols in the presence of a Lewis acid undergo chemoselective and regioselective electrocyclization reactions to generate 1-aryl-1H-indenes. Electrocyclization only occurs for allylic cations bearing a 2-substituent, with 2-ester and(More)
The present investigation was undertaken to test the hypothesis that known metabolites of the phenylethylamine hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM) are pharmacologically active. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the ability of racemic DOM metabolites 2-O-desmethyl DOM (2-DM-DOM) and 5-O-desmethyl DOM (5-DM-DOM) to(More)