Learn More
Effective indoor residual spraying against malaria vectors depends on whether mosquitoes rest indoors (i.e., endophilic behavior). This varies among species and is affected by insecticidal irritancy. Exophilic behavior has evolved in certain populations exposed to prolonged spraying programs. Optimum effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets presumably(More)
In Mali the Anopheles gambiae complex consists of An. arabiensis and Mopti, Savanna and Bamako chromosomal forms of An. gambiae s.s. Previous chromosomal data suggests a complete reproductive isolation among these forms. Sequence analysis of rDNA regions led to the characterization of two molecular forms of An. gambiae, named M-form and S-form, which in(More)
Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are commonly used as a means of personal protection from malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have special treatments intended to remain effective after many washes. The present trials assessed the efficacy and wash-resistance of several production(More)
Permethrin impregnated netting was tested against Tanzanian populations of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, An.gambiae Giles and An.funestus Giles in experimental huts fitted with traps to catch samples of the mosquitoes existing during the night. Treated bednets killed some mosquitoes and increased the tendency of survivors to exit during the night. Treated(More)
Synthetic repellents based on di-ethyl 3-methyl benzamide (DEET) are a popular method of obtaining protection from mosquitoes and yet clear evidence for a protective effect against malaria has hitherto never been convincingly demonstrated. A household randomized trial was undertaken among a study population of 127 families (25%) in an Afghan refugee village(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate (1) benefits due to personal protection of individual net users vs. mass killing of mosquitoes within villages as a result of widespread net usage; (2) sustainability over several years of benefits against malarial morbidity of insecticide-treated nets; (3) distribution of the benefits in different age groups of children and (4)(More)
Experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire were used to evaluate the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin, the non-ester pyrethroid etofenprox, the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl and the carbamate carbosulfan on bednets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae Giles. To test for selection for the resistance gene by the treated nets, A. gambiae collected live or(More)
Over 61,000 anophelines collected between January 1988 and October 1989 in three villages in western Venezuela were assayed by ELISA for Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein. The six specimens confirmed positive belonged to three species: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón, 1940, A. albitarsis Arribalzaga, 1878 sensu lato and A.(More)
In an intensely malarious area in north-east Tanzania, microencapsulated lambdacyhalothrin was used in four villages for treatment of bednets (provided free of charge) and in another four villages the same insecticide was used for house spraying. Another four villages received neither intervention until the end of the trial but were monitored as controls.(More)
Pyrethroid resistance is becoming widespread in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, coinciding with expanded use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) throughout Africa. To investigate whether nets in use are still protective, we conducted household trials in northern and southern Benin, where An. gambiae mosquitoes are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to(More)