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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In 2006, a life-threatening 'cytokine storm', not predicted by pre-clinical safety testing, rapidly occurred in all six healthy volunteers during the phase I clinical trial of the CD28 superagonist monoclonal antibody (mAb) TGN1412. To date, no unequivocal explanation for the failure of TGN1412 to stimulate profound cytokine release(More)
Programmers learning how to use an API or a programming language often rely on code examples to support their learning activities. However, what makes for an effective ode example remains an open question. Finding the haracteristics of the effective examples is essential in improving the appropriateness of these learning aids. To help answer this question(More)
Methods are described for odor-stimulated labeling of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the freshwater zebrafish Danio rerio and the marine spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Permeation of a cationic molecule, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane ( = agmatine, AGB), through ion channels following odor stimulation, and its detection by an anti-AGB antibody, allow labeling(More)
The prosurvival protein BCL-2 is frequently overexpressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We have generated ER-positive primary breast tumor xenografts that recapitulate the primary tumors and demonstrate that the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 markedly improves tumor response to the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Despite abundant BCL-XL expression, similar(More)
CSF-1 regulates macrophage differentiation, survival, and function, and is an attractive therapeutic target for chronic inflammation and malignant diseases. Here we describe the effects of a potent and selective inhibitor of CSF-1R-CYC10268-on CSF-1R-dependent signaling. In in vitro kinase assays, CYC10268 was active in the low nanomolar range and showed(More)
The generation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells has captured the public and professional imagination, largely due their potential as a means of overcoming many debilitating and degenerative diseases by cell replacement therapy. Despite this potential, few well-characterized hES cell lines have been derived. Indeed, in the UK, despite several centres(More)
Activating alleles of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) such as JAK2(V617F) are central to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), suggesting that small molecule inhibitors targeting JAK2 may be therapeutically useful. We have identified an aminopyrimidine derivative (CYT387), which inhibits JAK1, JAK2, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) at low nanomolar(More)
Somatic mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), including JAK2V617F, result in dysregulated JAK-signal transducer and activator transcription (STAT) signaling, which is implicated in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) pathogenesis. CYT387 is an ATP-competitive small molecule that potently inhibits JAK1/JAK2 kinases (IC(50)=11 and 18 nM, respectively), with(More)
Cyclic AMP-dependent expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein is thought to be the controlling step for steroid production, but the mechanisms through which external signals are translated into increased transcription of the StAR gene are unknown. We demonstrate that cyclic AMP-induced steroid synthesis is dependent upon the(More)