Chris Arnold

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PURPOSE Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis remains a significant problem, especially for the surgical neonate. Aluminum is a toxic element known to contaminate parenteral nutrition. We hypothesize that parenterally administered aluminum causes liver injury similar to that seen in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis. METHODS Twenty 3- to(More)
OBJECTIVES We wanted to develop thickened beverages that contain soluble fiber (inulin) with acceptable consistency, taste, and texture and to determine the effects of these beverages on bone resorption markers (to determine calcium retention), bowel frequency, and indicators of gastrointestinal function in institutionalized adults bound to wheelchairs. (More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of preterm low birth weight on bone mineral content in adolescence. In 2007 to 2008, data on adolescents were obtained for study, including 16 females and 25 males who were born preterm (≤37 weeks' gestation) between October 1, 1989, and December 31, 1995, with a birth weight of less than 1850 g.(More)
OBJECTIVE Adequate nutrition is paramount for premature infants. Longitudinal information is scant on the effects of early nutrition and later growth. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of early energy and protein provision in premature infants on adolescent body composition and blood pressure. METHODS In 2007-2008 we obtained data(More)
BACKGROUND Aluminum toxicity is associated with anemia, impaired bone metabolism, neurologic defects, and parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated liver disease. This element is a ubiquitous contaminant of PN components, especially in infant formulations. We assessed the current levels of aluminum contamination in infant PN at a level III neonatal intensive(More)
PURPOSE Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis remains a significant problem, especially for the surgical neonates. Aluminum is a toxic element known to contaminate parenteral nutrition. We hypothesize that parenterally administered aluminum causes liver injury similar to that seen in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis. METHODS Twenty 3- to(More)
In The Onion Router (TOR) system, anonymity is provided by router services run by TOR users who volunteer their computational resources. Scalability concerns stem from the TOR design because volunteers lack an incentive to participate. A payment scheme has been previously introduced which aims at providing economic incentives for volunteers in hopes of(More)
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is an essential component in the care of premature and ill infants. The incidence of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) ranges from 7.4 to 84%. One substance in PN solutions that has been implicated in PNAC is aluminum. Aluminum loading in animals and humans causes hepatic accumulation and damage. The degree of(More)