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Gait changes in the elderly, such as reduced step length and walking speed, are well documented but not well understood. This review explores the hypothesis that neuromuscular adaptations are a response to age-related impairments and play a key role in causing gait changes in the elderly, and that different neuromuscular adaptations may exist depending on(More)
BACKGROUND Acupuncture may improve motor function in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke, yet the neural mechanisms underlying such an effect are unknown. As part of a sham-controlled, randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 10-week acupuncture protocol in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke, we examined the relationship between(More)
The effects of aging on lower trunk (trunk-low-back joint-pelvis) coordination and energy transfer during locomotion has received little attention; consequently, there are scant biomechanical data available for comparison with patient populations whose upper body movements may be impaired by orthopaedic or neurologic disorders. To address this problem, we(More)
BACKGROUND A supportive social environment is critical for those with HIV/AIDS. In KwaZulu-Natal, in South Africa, antiretroviral therapy is available to some HIV-positive individuals. Antiretroviral adherence is an important issue for limiting HIV infection. Adherence to therapy may be linked to social support, particularly amidst the stigma prevalent in(More)
We identified biomechanical variables indicative of lower extremity dysfunction, distinct from age-related gait adaptations, and examined interrelationships among these variables to better understand the neuromuscular adaptations in gait. Sagittal plane ankle, knee, and hip peak angles, moments, and powers and spatiotemporal parameters were acquired during(More)
OBJECTIVE Few studies exist on gait adaptation caused by knee osteoarthritis (OA), and those have only explored adaptations of the kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint itself. We characterize ankle, knee, hip, and low back mechanical energy expenditures (MEE) and compensations (MEC) during gait in patients with knee OA. METHODS Thirteen elderly(More)
PURPOSE To assess three-dimensional measurement accuracy of articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone (SB) thickness from MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS A computer program was used to calculate AC and SB thickness from MRI (three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo (SPGR),.31-mm resolution, 1-mm slice thickness) of six adult femoral heads. Specimens were(More)
It is commonly accepted that leg muscle power is an important component of functional ability. Paced gait data for 20 healthy young women (27+/-4.2 yrs), 16 healthy old women (72.5+/-5.6 yrs), and 24 functionally limited old women (73.5+/-7.2 yrs) were analyzed during stance phase to investigate whether power calculations from motion analysis data were(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop a predictive model of the lift-off event during chair rise in healthy subjects, using foot-floor reaction forces. BACKGROUND An important event during chair rise is lift-off from the seat: the transition from the inherently stable three-point contact to the unstable two-point contact. There is no consistent or generally agreed upon(More)
PURPOSE To observe the incidence of proper and improper use or non-use of bicycle helmets by children and adults when riding bicycles in groups. STUDY DESIGN An observational survey of bicycle riders on a recreational bicycle path. METHODS In eight half-day sessions, two observers independently rated all riders in groups that consisted of adults and(More)