Chris A. Martin

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Spatial variation in plant diversity has been attributed to heterogeneity in resource availability for many ecosystems. However, urbanization has resulted in entire landscapes that are now occupied by plant communities wholly created by humans, in which diversity may reflect social, economic, and cultural influences in addition to those recognized by(More)
Urban ecosystems are subjected to high temperatures--extreme heat events, chronically hot weather, or both-through interactions between local and global climate processes. Urban vegetation may provide a cooling ecosystem service, although many knowledge gaps exist in the biophysical and social dynamics of using this service to reduce climate extremes. To(More)
INTRODUCTION A self-etching primer (SEP) saves valuable time by eliminating the many steps required to etch, rinse, and place a sealant before application of the adhesive and placement of the bracket. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conventional etch and sealant (CES) and a SEP on enamel decalcification in vivo. METHODS(More)
Capsicum annuum (pepper) plants were inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus intraradices Smith and Schenck, an undescribed Glomus sp. (AZ 112) or a mixture of these isolates. Control plants were non-mycorrhizal. Plants were grown for 8 weeks at moderate (20.7–25.4°C) or high (32.1–38°C) temperatures. Colonization of pepper roots by G.(More)
INTRODUCTION The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy and speed of measuring the overall arch length and the Bolton ratio, and the time to perform a Bolton analysis for each patient by using software (emodel, version 6.0, GeoDigm Corp, Chanhassen, Minn) compared with hand-held plaster models. METHODS Models from 30 patients selected from(More)
This paper examines the impacts, feedbacks, and mitigation of the urban heat island in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). At Sky Harbor Airport, urbanization has increased the nighttime minimum temperature by 5°C and the average daily temperatures by 3.1°C. Urban warming has increased the number of “misery hours per day” for humans, which may have important social(More)
INTRODUCTION The crown Herbst appliance was introduced in the late 1980s because of shortcomings of the banded Herbst. In edgewise Herbst treatment, a fixed appliance is used with the crown Herbst to maximize the skeletal effects of treatment. Treatment response to the edgewise Herbst appliance has not been reported in the literature. Our objective was to(More)
AIM To evaluate and compare the anteroposterior relationship of the maxillary central incisors to the forehead in white male adults with harmonious profiles and white male adult orthodontic patients. METHODS Photographs of 101 white male adults with good facial harmony (control sample) were compared with photographs of 97 white male adults seeking(More)
The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape(More)
INTRODUCTION The relationship between nasal airway resistance and the use of rapid palatal expansion appliances remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to use conventional tomography to determine the anatomical changes in the nasal cavity after maxillary expansion. METHODS Nineteen patients (aged 8-15 years) were included in the study.(More)