Chris A. Helliwell

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Post-transcriptional silencing of plant genes using anti-sense or co-suppression constructs usually results in only a modest proportion of silenced individuals. Recent work has demonstrated the potential for constructs encoding self-complementary 'hairpin' RNA (hpRNA) to efficiently silence genes. In this study we examine design rules for efficient gene(More)
Multiple genetic pathways act in response to developmental cues and environmental signals to promote the floral transition, by regulating several floral pathway integrators. These include FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). We show that the flowering repressor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) is controlled by the(More)
Endogenous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), function as post-transcriptional or transcriptional regulators in plants. miRNA function is essential for normal plant development and therefore is likely to be important in the growth of the rice grain. To investigate the roles of miRNAs in rice grain development, we(More)
The Arabidopsis Flowering Locus C (FLC) protein is a repressor of flowering regulated by genes in the autonomous and vernalization pathways. Previous genetic and transgenic data have suggested that FLC acts by repressing expression of the floral integrator genes SOC1 and FT. We have taken an in vivo approach to determine whether the FLC protein interacts(More)
Since the discovery of miRNAs in plants it has become clear that they are central to the regulation of many aspects of plant development and responses to the environment. miR172 regulates expression of a small group of AP2-like transcription factors in an evolutionarily ancient interaction. miR172 functions in regulating the transitions between(More)
FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) has a key role in the timing of the initiation of flowering in Arabidopsis. FLC binds and represses two genes that promote flowering, FT and SOC1. We show that FLC binds to many other genes, indicating that it has regulatory roles other than the repression of flowering. We identified 505 FLC binding sites, mostly located in the(More)
Gene silencing can be achieved by transformation of plants with constructs that express self-complementary (termed hairpin) RNA containing sequences homologous to the target genes. The DNA sequences encoding the self-complementary regions of hairpin (hp) RNA constructs form an inverted repeat. The inverted repeat can be stabilized in bacteria through(More)
We have shown that ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase, a member of the CYP88A subfamily of cytochrome P450 enzymes, catalyzes the three steps of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA(12). A gibberellin-responsive barley mutant, grd5, accumulates ent-kaurenoic acid in developing grains. Three independent grd5 mutants contain mutations in(More)
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the promotion of flowering by cold temperatures, vernalization, is regulated via a floral-repressive MADS box transcription factor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Vernalization leads to the epigenetic repression of FLC expression, a process that requires the polycomb group (PcG) protein VERNALIZATION 2 (VRN2) and the plant homeodomain(More)
FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis encodes a dosage dependent repressor of flowering. We isolated five FLC-related sequences from Brassica napus (BnFLC1-5). Expression of each of the five sequences in Arabidopsis delayed flowering significantly, with the delay in flowering time ranging from 3 weeks to more than 7 months, relative to the flowering time(More)