Chou-Zen Giam

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Activation of I-κB kinases (IKKs) and NF-κB by the human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, is thought to promote cell proliferation and transformation. Paradoxically, expression of Tax in most cells leads to drastic up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1), which cause(More)
HTLV-1 Tax is a potent activator of viral transcription and NF-kappaB. Recent data indicate that Tax activates the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ahead of schedule, causing premature degradation of cyclin A, cyclin B1, securin, and Skp2. Premature loss of these mitotic regulators is accompanied by mitotic aberrations and leads to rapid(More)
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Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection is largely latent in infected persons. How HTLV-1 establishes latency and reactivates is unclear. Here we show that most HTLV-1-infected HeLa cells become senescent. By contrast, when NF-κB activity is blocked, senescence is averted, and infected cells continue to divide and chronically produce viral(More)
Many oncogenic viruses activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) as a part of their replicative cycles. We have shown recently that persistent and potentially oncogenic activation of NF-κB by the human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax immediately triggers a host senescence response mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p21(CIP1/WAF1) (p21)(More)
Human T-cell leukemia viruses types 1 (HTLV-1) and 2 (HTLV-2) produce key transcriptional regulatory gene products, known as Tax1 and Tax2, respectively. Tax1 and Tax2 transactivate multiple host genes involved in cellular immune responses within the cellular microenvironment, including induction of genes encoding expression of CC-chemokines. It is(More)
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms(More)
PURPOSE To examine whether human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) could infect a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, ARPE-19, in vitro and to investigate its regulation. METHODS A coculture system with ARPE-19 and irradiated cells of an HTLV-1-producing T-cell line, MT2 was used to determine the permissivity of RPE to HTLV-1 infection(More)
HTLV-1 Tax can induce senescence by up-regulating the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1). Tax increases p27(KIP1) protein stability by activating the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) precociously, causing degradation of Skp2 and inactivation of SCF(Skp2), the E3 ligase that targets p27(KIP1). The rate of(More)
Patients with HIV-1 and HTLV-2 coinfections often exhibit a clinical course similar to HIV-1 infected long-term nonprogressors. This observation has been attributed in part to the ability of the HTLV Tax2 protein to activate production of antiviral chemokines and to down-regulate the CCR5 co receptor on lymphocytes. Therefore we investigated the possibility(More)