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Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) encodes an immediate early transcriptional activator, Rta, which mediates viral reactivation from latency and lytic viral replication. Here we report the purification and characterizations of HHV-8 Rta and its interaction with Rta-responsive DNA elements. The Rta response element(More)
Outer dense fiber 2 (Odf2) was initially identified as a major component of sperm tail cytoskeleton and later was suggested to be a widespread component of centrosomal scaffold that preferentially associates with the appendages of the mother centrioles in somatic cells. Here we report the identification of two Odf2-related centrosomal components, hCenexin1(More)
Activation of I-κB kinases (IKKs) and NF-κB by the human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, is thought to promote cell proliferation and transformation. Paradoxically, expression of Tax in most cells leads to drastic up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1), which cause(More)
HTLV-1 Tax is a potent activator of viral transcription and NF-kappaB. Recent data indicate that Tax activates the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ahead of schedule, causing premature degradation of cyclin A, cyclin B1, securin, and Skp2. Premature loss of these mitotic regulators is accompanied by mitotic aberrations and leads to rapid(More)
HTLV-1 Tax can induce senescence by up-regulating the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1). Tax increases p27(KIP1) protein stability by activating the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) precociously, causing degradation of Skp2 and inactivation of SCF(Skp2), the E3 ligase that targets p27(KIP1). The rate of(More)
Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection is largely latent in infected persons. How HTLV-1 establishes latency and reactivates is unclear. Here we show that most HTLV-1-infected HeLa cells become senescent. By contrast, when NF-κB activity is blocked, senescence is averted, and infected cells continue to divide and chronically produce viral(More)
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms(More)
Many oncogenic viruses activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) as a part of their replicative cycles. We have shown recently that persistent and potentially oncogenic activation of NF-κB by the human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax immediately triggers a host senescence response mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p21(CIP1/WAF1) (p21)(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to identify existing clinical compounds that either possess a fungicidal activity alone or can act synergistically with fungistatic antifungals. METHODS We screened a clinical compound library for drugs that exhibited anti-Aspergillus activity. Among selected compounds, the cationic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B(More)
Human T-cell leukemia viruses types 1 (HTLV-1) and 2 (HTLV-2) produce key transcriptional regulatory gene products, known as Tax1 and Tax2, respectively. Tax1 and Tax2 transactivate multiple host genes involved in cellular immune responses within the cellular microenvironment, including induction of genes encoding expression of CC-chemokines. It is(More)