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Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves(More)
The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a representative signal containing information about the condition of the brain. The shape of the wave may contain useful information about the state of the brain. However, the human observer cannot directly monitor these subtle details. Besides, since bio-signals are highly subjective, the symptoms may appear at random in(More)
The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signal indicates the electrical activity of the brain. They are highly random in nature and may contain useful information about the brain state. However, it is very difficult to get useful information from these signals directly in the time domain just by observing them. They are basically non-linear and nonstationary in(More)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is caused by damage to the small blood vessels of the retina in the posterior part of the eye of the diabetic patient. The main stages of diabetic retinopathy are non-proliferate diabetes retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferate diabetes retinopathy (PDR). The retinal fundus photographs are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of(More)
Digital watermarking is a technique of hiding specific identification data for copyright authentication. This technique is adapted here for interleaving patient information with medical images, to reduce storage and transmission overheads. The text data is encrypted before interleaving with images to ensure greater security. The graphical signals are(More)
Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism-the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. The most common form of diabetes is Type 2 diabetes. Abnormal plantar pressures are considered to play a major role in the pathologies of neuropathic ulcers in the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to examine the plantar pressure distribution in(More)
Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are widely used to study the activity of the brain, such as to determine sleep stages. These EEG signals are nonlinear and non-stationary in nature. It is difficult to perform sleep staging by visual interpretation and linear techniques. Thus, we use a nonlinear technique, higher order spectra (HOS), to extract hidden(More)
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder which manifests as recurrent seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are generally analyzed to study the characteristics of epileptic seizures. In this work, we propose a method for the automated classification of EEG signals into normal, interictal and ictal classes using Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), Higher(More)
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the electrical activity of the heart indicated by P, Q-R-S and T wave. The minute changes in the amplitude and duration of ECG depicts a particular type of cardiac abnormality. It is very difficult to decipher the hidden information present in this nonlinear and nonstationary signal. An automatic diagnostic system that(More)