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Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves(More)
The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a representative signal containing information about the condition of the brain. The shape of the wave may contain useful information about the state of the brain. However, the human observer cannot directly monitor these subtle details. Besides, since bio-signals are highly subjective, the symptoms may appear at random in(More)
The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signal indicates the electrical activity of the brain. They are highly random in nature and may contain useful information about the brain state. However, it is very difficult to get useful information from these signals directly in the time domain just by observing them. They are basically non-linear and nonstationary in(More)
The Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a representative signal containing information about the condition of the brain. The shape of the wave may contain useful information about the state of the brain. However, the human observer cannot directly monitor these subtle details. Besides, since bio-signals are highly subjective, the symptoms may appear at random in(More)
Analysis of heart rate has become a popular noninvasive tool for assessing the activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). These signals may either contain indicators of a current disease or even warnings about impending diseases. However, to manually study and pinpoint heart abnormalities in voluminous data is strenuous and time consuming. Here, an(More)
Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are widely used to study the activity of the brain, such as to determine sleep stages. These EEG signals are nonlinear and non-stationary in nature. It is difficult to perform sleep staging by visual interpretation and linear techniques. Thus, we use a nonlinear technique, higher order spectra (HOS), to extract hidden(More)
The heart rate is a non-stationary signal, and its variation can contain indicators of current disease or warnings about impending cardiac diseases. The indicators can be present at all times or can occur at random, during certain intervals of the day. However, to study and pinpoint abnormalities in large quantities of data collected over several hours is(More)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is caused by damage to the small blood vessels of the retina in the posterior part of the eye of the diabetic patient. The main stages of diabetic retinopathy are non-proliferate diabetes retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferate diabetes retinopathy (PDR). The retinal fundus photographs are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of(More)
The unpredictability of the occurrence of epileptic seizures contributes to the burden of the disease to a major degree. An automatic system that detects seizure onsets would allow patients or the people near them to take appropriate precautions, and could provide more insight into these phenomena, thereby revealing important clinical information. Thus,(More)