Choo Hock Tan

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The uptake of leucine by rat brain synaptosomes was investigated in a Na+-free medium. It was found that leucine was transported into synaptosomes by 2 uptake processes which were both extremely sensitive to inhibition by 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid. These 2 components were distinguishable from each other by kinetic analysis and by(More)
BACKGROUND The optimization of snakebite management and the use of antivenom depend greatly on the knowledge of the venom's composition as well as its pharmacokinetics. To date, however, pharmacokinetic reports on cobra venoms and their toxins are still relatively limited. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of Naja sumatrana(More)
Magnificalysin I and II (HMg I and II) and equinatoxin II (EqTx II) are cytolytic toxins extracted from sea anemones Heteractis magnifica and Actinia equina, respectively. They induced haemolysis in rat red blood cells and inhibited gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and choline uptake into rat brain synaptosomes. These effects were concentration dependent.(More)
The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is widely distributed throughout many parts of Asia. This study aims to investigate the complexity of Malaysian Ophiophagus hannah (MOh) venom for a better understanding of king cobra venom variation and its envenoming pathophysiology. The venom gland transcriptome was investigated using the Illumina HiSeq™ platform,(More)
Sea snake envenomation is a serious occupational hazard in tropical waters. In Malaysia, the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, formerly known as Enhydrina schistosa) and the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus, formerly known as Lapemis curtus or Lapemis hardwickii) are two commonly encountered species. Australian CSL sea snake antivenom is the(More)
Snakebite envenomation is a serious medical problem in many tropical developing countries and was considered by WHO as a neglected tropical disease. Antivenom (AV), the rational and most effective treatment modality, is either unaffordable and/or unavailable in many affected countries. Moreover, each AV is specific to only one (monospecific) or a few(More)
Serum Anti Ular Bisa (SABU) is the only snake antivenom produced locally in Indonesia; however, its effectiveness has not been rigorously evaluated. This study aimed to assess the protein composition and neutralization efficacy of SABU. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, size-exclusion liquid chromatography and shotgun proteomics revealed that SABU(More)
Antivenom neutralization against cobra venoms is generally low in potency, presumably due to poor toxin-specific immunoreactivity. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of two elapid antivenoms to neutralize the principal toxins purified from the venoms of the Thai monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia, Nk-T) and the Malaysian beaked sea snake(More)
BACKGROUND Prescribing incompetence is an important factor that contributes to prescribing error, and this is often due to inadequate training during medical schools. We therefore aimed to develop and validate an instrument to assess the prescribing readiness of medical students (PROMS) in Malaysia. METHODS The PROMS comprised of 26 items with four(More)
To get an insight into the mechanism of neurotoxicity exhibited by Lophozozymus pictor toxin (LPTX) and the toxin isolated from P.caribaeorum (C-PTX) studies were carried out on the effect of these toxins on the uptake of selected substrates (neurotransmitters, amino acids and glucose) in isolated nerve endings. The toxins were found to inhibit the uptake(More)