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BACKGROUND Economic feasibility and sustainability of lignocellulosic ethanol production requires the development of robust microorganisms that can efficiently degrade and convert plant biomass to ethanol. The anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate microorganism as it is capable of hydrolyzing cellulose and fermenting the(More)
MOTIVATION Metagenomic sequencing of clinical samples provides a promising technique for direct pathogen detection and characterization in biosurveillance. Taxonomic analysis at the strain level can be used to resolve serotypes of a pathogen in biosurveillance. Sigma was developed for strain-level identification and quantification of pathogens using their(More)
Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were(More)
Ultrascale computing and high-throughput experimental technologies have enabled the production of scientific data about complex natural phenomena. With this opportunity, comes a new problem – the massive quantities of data so produced. Answers to fundamental questions about the nature of those phenomena remain largely hidden in the produced data. The goal(More)
The human gut microbiota is an important metabolic organ, yet little is known about how its individual species interact, establish dominant positions, and respond to changes in environmental factors such as diet. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an artificial microbiota comprising 12 sequenced human gut bacterial species and fed(More)
MOTIVATION Ion-type identification is a fundamental problem in computational proteomics. Methods for accurate identification of ion types provide the basis for many mass spectrometry data interpretation problems, including (a) de novo sequencing, (b) identification of post-translational modifications and mutations and (c) validation of database search(More)
BACKGROUND Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is a capable ethanologenic bacterium with high ethanol productivity and ethanol tolerance. Previous studies indicated that several stress-related proteins and changes in the ZM4 membrane lipid composition may contribute to ethanol tolerance. However, the molecular mechanisms of its ethanol stress response have not been(More)
Stable isotope probing (SIP) has been used to track nutrient flows in microbial communities, but existing protein-based SIP methods capable of quantifying the degree of label incorporation into peptides and proteins have been demonstrated only by targeting usually less than 100 proteins per sample. Our method automatically (i) identifies the sequence of and(More)
BACKGROUND High-resolution tandem mass spectra can now be readily acquired with hybrid instruments, such as LTQ-Orbitrap and LTQ-FT, in high-throughput shotgun proteomics workflows. The improved spectral quality enables more accurate de novo sequencing for identification of post-translational modifications and amino acid polymorphisms. RESULTS In this(More)
The CRISPR/Cas system, comprised of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats along with their associated (Cas) proteins, protects bacteria and archaea from viral predation and invading nucleic acids. While the mechanism of action for this acquired immunity is currently under investigation, the response of Cas protein expression to phage(More)